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DESIGN AND AUTOMATION OF AUTOMATIC BORE PIPE LIFTING SYSTEM PROJECT REPORT 2013-2014 SUBMITTED BY S.GOWTHAM V.GUGAN P V.HARIHARAN N.JAGADESH KUMAR JAISON.C.GEORGE G.JAYA CHANDHRU

Jaga Project Full Report

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Page 1: Jaga Project Full Report

DESIGN AND AUTOMATION OF AUTOMATIC BORE WELL

PIPE LIFTING SYSTEM

PROJECT REPORT 2013-2014

SUBMITTED BY

S.GOWTHAM

V.GUGAN PRABHU

V.HARIHARAN

N.JAGADESH KUMAR

JAISON.C.GEORGE

G.JAYA CHANDHRU

GUIDED BY

MR.F.ROBERT BELLARMIN B.E.,

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of in diploma

in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING by the state board of technical education

government of tamilnadu Chennai.

CHRIST THE KING POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CHRIST THE KING POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

COIMBATORE-641 032.

PROJECT REPORT 2013-2014.

This report is certified to be the bonafide work done by selvan_________________

Reg.no _____________ of VI semester class of this college.

Project Guide Head of the department

______________ ___________________

Submitted for the practical examinations, state board of technical education, Chennai, tamilnadu on ___________ held at the Christ the king polytechnic college, Coimbatore.

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DEDICATED TO

BELEVOED OUR PARENTS AND

STAFF MEMBERS

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CONTENTS

SL.NO NAME OF THE TOPIC PAGE.NO

1. Acknowledgement 72. Synopsis 83. Abstract 104. Introduction 125. Description of equipment’s6. (i)Speed reduction gear box 147. (ii)Motor 188. (iii)Chain block 229. (iv)Pulley 2510. (v)Belt 2911. Details of drawing 3212. Construction 3513. Working principle 3714. Maintenance 3915. Advantages 4316. Disadvantages 4517. Applications 4718. List of materials 4919. Cost estimation 51

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DRAWING CONTENTS

SL.NO NAME OF THE DRAWING FIG.NO PAGE.NO

1. Speed reduction gear box 5.1.1

2. Motor 5.2.1

5.2.2

3. Chain block 5.3.1

4. Pulley 5.4.1

5.

6.

Belt

Details of drawing

5.5.1

6.1.1

6.1.2

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing of having successfully completed our project, we wish to

convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the management of our college and our

beloved chairman THE MOST REV. DR. L. THOMAS AQUINAS, MA, D.D.,

D.C.L., VERY REV. FR. R. KULANDAIRAJ, MA, and our correspondent who

provided all the facilities to us.

We this like to express our sincere thanks to our principal THIRU A.

ANTONY FERNANDEZ, ME., MISTE., for forwarding us to do our project and

offering adequate duration in completing our project.

We also grateful to the head of the department Prof Mr. E. ANTONY

RAJAN B.E., MISTE, for his constructive suggestions and encouragement during

our project.

With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest and sincere thanks to our

guide Mr. F. ROBERT BELLARMIN, B.E., department of mechanical engineering

for his kind guidance and encouragement during this project we also express our

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is the bore well pipes lifted automatically without

human effort. This system is consists of speed reduction gear unit, motor, pulley,

belt, and etc., there are two gears are used to speed reduction. One is smaller gear

and another is bigger gear these gears are connected in to two individual shafts. To

reduce the friction while shaft rotation the bearing block with bush (gunmetal) is

used. And motor is fitted in another end. Motor pulley and smaller gear shaft

pulley connected with V-belt to transmission the power. When we start the motor

the power is transmitted to smaller gear and mesh with bigger gear and also rotate

anti-clockwise. The chain block is connected to bigger gear shaft using chain

pulley and automatically lift the bore well pipes. The system easily to lift heavy

weight load bore well pipes.

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4. INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Bore well machine is used to drill bore for lifting the water from underground to

the ground level. So the lifting of the shaft is done manually. In this project, it is

planned to lift the pipe automatically without human effort. To lift the shaft

automatically the gears are to be used. Gears are used to increase the torque level

which in turn helps to lift the shaft from underground to ground surface. Designing

involves the identification of various types, their position and geometry in the

project. Gears with various specifications such as gear ratio, pitch circle diameter,

etc., need to be used. Automation is effected by the motorized operation and by the

incorporation of gears. Thus, the design and automation of the bore lifting system

is the project proposed to be done.

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DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

6. (I) SPEED REDUCTION GEAR BOX

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SPEE D REDUCTION GEAR BOX

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FIG 5.1.1

A reduction gear is an arrangement by which an input speed can be

lowered for a requirement of slower output speed, with same or more output

torque. Reduction gear assembly consists of a set of rotating gears connected to

a wheel work. The high speed incoming motion from the wheel work is

transmitted to the set of rotating gears, where the motion or torque is changed.

The number of gears used in the reduction gear assembly depends on the output

speed.

First off, let me explain that gear reduction in the context of this help

section refers to speed reduction in general whether it is by traditional gear,

chain and sprocket or belts. The goal of this section is to give anyone a basic

understanding of what gear reduction is and how it can be used to help give an

idea on how to implement it in a robot. Because there are different areas in a

robot that could

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Benefit from gear Reduction we will focus on the most important one, the

driven train. And, we will take only about DC electric motors but the

fundamental can be applied to other motor as well.

The reason that we need to know about gear reduction is because the output

speed of a motor is usually too fast for normal use. Most DC motor at normal

operating voltages spins at well over 1,000 rpm (revolutions per minute) and

some even as high to 5,000 rpm for brushless DC motors. If we had a motor

than spun at say 3,000 rpm, and we attached a 6 inch wheel to it than the wheel

would theoretically be able to move the bot at almost 54 moles per hour!

That is way too fast to control in an arena due to other considerations that

wouldn’t happen but we`ll get into that later. So we need to reduce the rate at

which the wheel spins so that we get a robot that we can at least control. Hint,

the quickly way of determining the speed of a wheel is to multiply the diameter

(in inches) of the wheel by the rpm and divide the result by 336.

Quite simply, gear reduction involves using gears/sprockets/pulleys of two

different sizes to work together. Because they are of differing sizes they will

have different circumferences (distance around the outer edge) and we can use

this to our advantage. Let's take a look at what this circumference thing really

means. To the left is a representation of a 4 inch diameter wheel. Click on the

wheel to watch it as it moves through one complete revolution. You will see

that the distance covered in one revolution is equal to the circumference of the

wheel.

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Now, let's take a look at a wheel that is twice the size. Click on the 8 inch

wheel to watch it as it goes through one complete revolution. What you will

notice that not only does the wheel have twice the diameter but it travels twice

the distance in one revolution. Therefore the circumference is twice that of the 4

inch wheel. So, if the 4 inch wheel were to cover the same distance as the 8 inch

wheel then it has to complete 2 full revolutions.

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7. (II) MOTOR

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MOTOR

Principle and Working of Electric Motor

An electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy into

mechanical energy. A common motor works on direct current. So, it is also

called DC motor.

Principle

When a rectangular carrying current is placed in a magnetic field, a

torque acts on the coil which rotates it continuously when the Coil rotates to it

also rotates and thus It is able to do mechanical work.

Construction

Brushes

Brushes are made of carbon and rest on the commentator. The brushes

carry current from the commentator to the external stationary load. The

brushes are put inside the brush holders are kept pressed against the

commentator by as spring.

Armature

A D.C.Motor consists of a rectangular coil made of insulated copper wire

wound on a soft iron core. This coil wound on the soft iron core forms the

armature coil is mounted on an axle is placed between the cylindrical concave

poles of a magnet.

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FIG 5.2.1

Commutator

The EMF induced in the armature is AC in nature. Commutator coverts

this AC to DC. The commutator is made of A copper segment insulated from

each other by mica sheets and is mounted on the shaft of the machine. The

armature conductors are soldered to the commutator segments in a suitable

manner to give rise to the armature winding.

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FIG 5.2.2

Working of a D.C.Motor

When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated around the

armature. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet

and drawn towards the right, causing rotation. When the coil turns through 90

degrees, the

brushes lose contact with the commutator and the current stops flowing

through the coil. However the coil keeps turning because of its own

momentum. Now when the coil turns through 180 degrees, the sides get

interchanged. As a result the commutator ring C1 is now contact with brush B2

and commutator or ring C2 is in contact with brush B1. Therefore, the current

continues to flow in the same direction.

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8. (III) CHAIN BLOCK

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CHAIN BLOCK

FIG 5.3.1

The safe working load is that load indicated on the hoist unit capacity

plate. This is the maximum load that May safety be lifted with the hoist under

no circumstances should a load greater than the soul be suspended from the

hoist.

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1. As with all lifting appliance care is necessary in the

Use of the hoist and propene and safe working

Routine should always be observed.

2. Careless or rough handling or failure to maintain in the hoist

may result in dangerous failure of the unit.

3. Always examine the hoist carefully before we use it life may be at

stake look for cracks or damages particular with hooks and load

chain. Check that the hooks are not directed.

4. This chain block used to lifting the underground Bore well pipes.

5. Chain block are connected to the speed reduction gear shaft

directly.

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9. (IV) PULLEY

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PULLEY

FIG 5.4.1

A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable

or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift

loads, apply forces, and to transmit power.

A pulley is also called a sheave or drums and may have

a groove between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a

pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt or chain that runs over the pulley inside

the groove.

Hero of Alexandria identified the pulley as one of six simple

machines used to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and

tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys

are also assembled as

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Part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one rotating shaft

to another. A set of pulleys assembled so that they rotate independently on the

same axle form a block. Two blocks with a rope attached to one of the blocks

and threaded through the two sets of pulleys form a block and tackle.

A block and tackle is assembled so one block is attached to fixed mounting

point and the other is attached to the moving load. The mechanical advantage of

the block and tackle is equal to the number of parts of the rope that support the

moving block.

A hoist using the compound pulley system yielding an advantage of 4. The

single fixed pulley is installed on the hoist Device. The two movable pulleys

(joined together) are attached to the hook. One end of the rope is attached to the

crane frame, another to the winch.

A rope and pulley system that is, a block and tackle  is characterized by the use

of a single continuous rope to transmit a tension force around one or more

pulleys to lift or move a load and the rope may be a light line or a strong cable.

This system is included in the list of simple machine identified by Renaissance

scientists.

If the rope and pulley system does not dissipate or store energy, then

its mechanical advantage is the number of parts of the rope that act on the load.

This can be shown as follows.

Consider the set of pulleys that form the moving block and the parts of the rope

that support this block. If there is p of these parts of the rope supporting the

load W, then a force balance on the moving block shows that the tension in each

of the parts of the rope must be W/p. This means the input force on the rope is

T=W/p. 

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The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys

and lines are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also

assumed that the lines do not stretch.

In equilibrium, the forces on the moving block must sum to zero. In addition the

tension in the rope must be the same for each of its parts. This means that the

two parts of the rope supporting the moving block must each support half the

load.

These are different types of pulley systems:

Fixed: A fixed pulley has an axle mounted in

bearings attached to a supporting structure. A fixed

pulley changes the direction of the force on a rope or

belt that moves along its circumference. Mechanical

advantage is gained by combining a fixed pulley

with a movable pulley or another fixed pulley of a

different diameter.

Movable: A movable pulley has an axle in a movable

block. A single movable pulley is supported by two

parts of the same rope and has a mechanical

advantage of two.

Compound: A combination of fixed and movable

pulleys forms a block and tackle. A block and

tackle can have several pulleys mounted on the fixed

and moving axles, further increasing the mechanical

advantage.

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10. (V) BELT

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BELT

FIG 5.5.1

Power transmission

Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that

may not be axially aligned. Power transmission is achieved by specially

designed belts and pulleys. The demands on a belt drive transmission system are

large and this has led to many variations on the theme. They run smoothly and

with little noise, and cushion motor and bearings against load changes, albeit

with less strength than gears or chains. However, improvements in belt

engineering allow use of belts in systems that only formerly allowed chains or

gears.

Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as the

product of difference of tension and belt velocity.

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Vee belt history

Trade journal coverage of V-belts in automobiles from 1916 mentioned

leather as the belt material, and mentioned that the V angle was not yet well

standardized. The endless rubber V-belt was developed in 1917 by John Gates

of the Gates Rubber Company. Multiple-V-belt drive was first arranged a few

years later by Walter Geist of the Allis-Chalmers corporation, who was inspired

to replace the single rope of multi-groove-sheave rope drives with multiple V-

belts running parallel. Geist filed for a patent in 1925 and Allis-Chalmers began

marketing the drive under the "Texrope" brand; the patent was granted in 1928

(U.S. Patent 1,662,511). The "Texrope" brand still exists, although it has

changed ownership and no longer refers to multiple-V-belt drive alone.

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11. DETAILS OF DRAWING

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12. CONSTRUCTION

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CONSTRUCTION

The base constructed with C-Channel. The motor is fitted to the one end of

the C-Channel. There are 2 shafts are used. One shaft is connected to the smaller

gear. And another shaft is connected to the big gear. The shaft supported by using

the L-angle. The bearing block is located on the top of the L-angle to rotate the

shaft. To reduce friction a bush is used in bearing block. The bush is made of

gunmetal. To transmit power from motor to the smaller gear shaft we using V-belt

on the pulley. The chain block is connected with the bigger gear shaft by using

chain pulley.

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13. WORKING PRINCIPLE

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WORKING PRINCIPLE

In first we have one motor. While the motor gets started, the small gear

shafts which get links on the motor also rotated. When the small gear gets rotated

the bigger gear which is engaged on the smaller gear. Also rotated. By rotating the

bigger gear the transmission speed is reduced while compare to smaller gear. The

rotating motion of the big gear shaft is converted into linear movement by using

chain pulley. By this mechanism the chain block will lift the bore well pipes

automatically. So this project used for bore well pipes lifted automatically. Without

human effort.

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14. MAINTENANCE

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MAINTENANCE

After the implementation of short message service-based public toilet

maintenance system, the Coimbatore Corporation mulls a proposal to

plug loopholes in bore well maintenance.

According to sources in the Coimbatore Corporation, of late it has

come to the notice of the senior officials that contractor’s in-charge of

maintaining bore wells could be charging the civic body for bore wells

that are dysfunctional.

The civic body has sunk 1,986 bore wells across the 100 wards to

supply groundwater to residents to help them meet their non-drinking

water needs. It has handed over the maintenance of the bore wells to

100 contractors — a contractor a ward — by paying them Rs. 1,584 a

month.

The money the Corporation spends on maintenance works out to Rs.

31.45 lakh a month. And this in addition to the money the civic body

spends on power, which comes to around Rs. 1.29 crore every two

months.

The sources say that there are a few bore wells that do not function at

all. There are bore wells with motors that do not run for days together

in a month. And then there are bore wells, the water from which could

be diverted for private use.

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To identify bore wells that function well and those that do not, the

Corporation has no choice but to rely solely on the electricity

consumption readings attached to the motors.

But then the meters do not provide accurate data because the meters

could themselves be out of use. Even if the meters work well, it will

be difficult to find Out if the water is used for public good.

To overcome the problem, the Corporation plans to develop software,

which, with the help of a subscriber identity module (SIM) card will

be able to collect data about bore wells on a day-to-day basis.

The sources say that the Corporation plans to attach a device to each

of the 1,986 bore wells to study how many hours a day each bore well

functions. And for how many days in a month. If the reading is nil, the

Corporation will not pay the contractor in-charge of maintenance.

If the bore well is functional only for a few days in a month, the

Corporation will pay not the entire maintenance charges but only the

proportionate amount. And if the motors run for longer than the usual

duration, the Corporation will check the misuse as well.

To ensure that the above mentioned system works well, the

Corporation will do a study of all the bore wells in the city to collect

details like their location, the capacity of motors attached there, how

many residents each of the bore wells feed, the average by monthly

power consumption taking

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Into account the summer and winter variations, etc.

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The sources say that the Corporation will implement the scheme with

urgency because there are demands to increase the bore well

maintenance from Rs. 1,584 a month to around Rs. 2,100 a month.

Only if the Corporation plugs the loopholes, will the hike in

maintenance charge having meaning, they add.

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15. ADVANTAGES

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ADVANTAGES

Manpower is reduced.

Unskilled labour is enough.

It’s used for lifting heavy load pipes.

Time is saved.

All types of bore well pipes can be lift.

Low space is enough.

It is easy to design

It is long life process.

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16. DISADVANTAGES

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DISADVANTAGES

Initial cost is high.

Maintenance cost is high.

The system will be lifted if there is no support.

Accidents may be occurring.

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17. APPLICATION

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APPLICATION

Tube wells generally fails due to problems like corrosion and encrustation

associated with conventional materials Due to corrosion the strainer screens

get damaged and the sand particles come out along with the water.

Due to encrustation, pipe diameter as well as effective area of screen get

reduces and hence tube well becomes unserviceable within few years.

These problems associated with conventional materials are totally eliminated

in Supreme casing pipes made from high quality PVC resin.

Supreme casing pipes offer superior performance at a lower cost and become

the v prime choice of the customer.

Supreme offers varieties of pipes for bore well applications to cater to every

need of bore well sector which includes Casing pipes as per IS 12818, ribbed

screen casing pipes for tube wells.

SDR casing pipe series for shallow depth applications as per company

standard, Plain pipes as well as screen (slotted) pipes are available in every

category of casing pipes. (Slotted pipes can also be used for rainwater

harvesting).

Submersible column pipes for submersible pumps are also offered to lift the

water from the wells. The advantages of Supreme UPVC water well casing,

and screen pipes are given below.

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18. LIST OF MATERIALS

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LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl.no Name of the material Requirement Feet

1 Gears 2

2 Motor 1, 3HP DC

3 Shaft (50mm) 2 7 Feet

4 V-Belt 2

5 V-Pulley 2

6 Chain pulley 1

7 Motor pulley 1

8 C-Channel 4 11 Feet

9 L-Angle 4 20 Feet

10 Bearing block 4

11 Chain block 1

12 Square rod (60mm) 4

13 Bolt 1 3/8, Nut, Washer 10

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19. COST ESTIMATION

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COST ESTIMATION

1. LABOUR COST

Lathe, milling, drilling, welding, gas cutting, power hacksaw.

2. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost “

Manufacturing cost = material cost + labour cost

= 10250 + 4000

= 14250

3. TOTAL COST

Total cost = material cost+ labour cost+ overhead cost

=

Total cost for this project =

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20. CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

This project is made with preplanning, that it provides flexibility in

bore well pipe lifting operation.

This innovation has made the more desirable and economical. This

project “DESIGN AND AUTOMATION OF AUTOMATIC BORE WELL

PIPE LIFTING SYSTEM”is designed with the hope that it is very much

economical and helpful to bore well pipe lifting system.

This project helped us to know the periodic steps in connecting a project work.

Thus completed the project successfully.

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21. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Driscoll, F. (1986). Groundwater and Wells. St. Paul: Johnson Filtration Systems. ISBN 978-0-9616456-0-1.

Raymond Rowles (1995). Drilling for Water (2nd ed.). Avebury, Cranfield University. ISBN 1-85628-984-2.

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22. PHOTOGRAPHY

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