Understanding Games and Gamification for Learning

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Here are my slides from my DevLearn 2012 session.

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<ul><li>1.UnderstandingtheValueofGamesandGamificationforSeriousLearning ByKarlM.Kapp BloomsburgUniversity GamificationofLearningandInstruction October31,2012Twitter:@kkapp gamify01</li></ul> <p>2. GoogleKappNotes 2012NewBook: TheGamificationofLearningandInstructionSeptember2011TrainingQuarterlyArticleImprovingTraining:ThinkingLikeaGameDeveloperSeptember2012TrainingQuarterlyArticleFiveGamingElementsforEffectiveeLearning 3. Agenda1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3What elements from games can beadded to traditional e-learning? 4. Aregames/simulationseffectiveforlearning? HowdoesGamificationfit intoallofthis? 5. Simulation/gameshavetobefuntobeeducational?Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 6. FISHY!Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games.Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 7. Simulation/gamesbuildmoreconfidenceforonthejobapplicationoflearnedknowledgethanclassroominstruction.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 8. Fact,20%higher confidencelevels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 9. In a Meta-AnalysisKnowledge retention forgame/simulation was 17%higher than a lecture. Is that Factor Fishy? 10. Fact!Delivery Method vs.% HigherGame/SimulationLecture 17%Discussion 5%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 11. Fact! Retention/% Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Declarative11% Procedural 14%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 12. Qualitative Analysis! Effects on Learning % of Compared to Traditional Studies Instruction Positive Effect for Games52% Mixed Results25% No Difference18% *OneStudyGamesbetterthantraditionalinstruction.Ke, F. (2009) A qualitative meta-analysis of computer games as learning tools. In R.E. Ferding (Ed.) , Effectiveelectronic gaming in education (ol. 1, pp. 1-32). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. .Review of 65 studies.Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 13. Fact!It wasnt the game, it wasRetentionlevel of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in14% the game leads to learning. Declarative11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 14. Fact:Instructionalgamesshouldbeembeddedininstructionalprogramsthatincludedebriefingandfeedback. EngagementInstructionalsupporttohelplearnersEducationalunderstandhowtousethegameincreasesSimulationinstructionaleffectivenessofthegaming Gameexperience.PedagogyHays,R.T.(2005).Theeffectivenessofinstructionalgames:Aliteraturereviewanddiscussion.NavalAirWarfareCenterTrainingSystemsDivision(No2005004).Chapter4TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. g 15. Example. ImageCourtesyofEnspireLearning 16. TransferTheabilityofsimulationstoteachskillsthattransfertoreallife,onthejobsituationsseemsabundantlypositive.In22outof26studies,traineesdemonstratedequalorsuperiortransfertothecontrolgroupfromsimulations.Shenan HahnADL ResearchandEvaluationTeamTransferofTrainingfromSimulationsinCivilianandMilitaryWorkforces:PerspectivesfromtheCurrentBodyofLiterature 17. EvidenceBasedRecommendations1) Useagame/simulationtoprovideacontextforthelearning.2) Dontfocusonfun.3) Craftthesimulation/gametoprovideopportunitiesto increaseengagementandinteractivitytoincreaselearning.4) Embedthegamewithinalargercurriculum(setup, debrief)5) Provideunlimitedaccesstogame/simulation. 18. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification 19. Gaming(Serious)GamesGamification SimulationsCourseHeroWhole Part ToysPlayfulDesignLegos iPhone PlayingFromGameDesignElementstoGamefulness:DefiningGamification,Deterding,S.et.al 20. http://www.coursehero.com/courses/ 21. 2weeksafterlaunchingCourses(poweredbygamification),CourseHeroreceived350suggestededitstoexistingcoursesand122requestsfornewcourses.Another68peopleofferedtoaugmentexistingcoursesbycreatingtheirowncoursetobehostedoncoursehero.com. 22. ForGamifiedcourses,thetimeonsitefortheCoursesarenearlythreetimesaslongastimeonsiteforallofcoursehero.com.Socialsharingofachievementsincreasednearly400percentinthreemonths. 23. itsnotallaboutpoints,badgesandprogressbars. 24. 20%increaseinprofilecompletion. 25. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning Story Character Recognition Levels Challenges Chance Replayability Aesthetics Time Continual Feedback 26. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning Story Character Recognition NOTEnoughTimeLevels Challenges Chance Replayability Aesthetics Time Continual Feedback 27. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Feedback2. Story3. Characters4. Fantasy 28. Feedback 29. Themosthelpfulfeedbackprovidesspecificcommentsabouterrorsandsuggestionsforimprovement.Italsoencourageslearnerstofocustheirattentionthoughtfullyonthetaskratherthanonsimplygettingtherightanswer.Shute,V.J.,Ventura,M.,Bauer,M.I.,&amp;ZapataRivera,D.(2009).Meldingthepowerofseriousgamesandembeddedassessmenttomonitorandfosterlearning:Flowandgrow.InU.Ritterfeld,M.J.Cody,&amp;P.Vorderer(Eds.), SeriousGames:MechanismsandEffects.Philadelphia,PA:Routledge/LEA.295321. 30. GameslikeTheSimsprovidefeedbackonmanydimensionswhichprovide opportunitiestoconsidertradeoffsandhigherlevelcognitivethinking. 31. Leaderboardsprovide opportunitiesforplayerstoreceivefeedbackabouttheirperformanceascomparedto others. Comparativeand relativefeedback 32. FocusedFeedbackencouragesactivity. 33. Story 34. Learners remember facts betterWhen presented in a bulletedlist as opposed to whenpresented in a story.Is that Fact or Fishy? 35. FISHY:ResearchershavefoundthattheYep,Peopletendtorememberfacts humanbrainhasanaturalaffinityformoreaccuratelyiftheyencounternarrativeconstruction.theminastoryratherthaninalist. Andtheyratelegalargumentsasmoreconvincingwhenbuiltintonarrativetalesratherthanonlegalprecedent.Carey,B.(2007)thisisYourLife(andHowYouTellit).TheNewYorkTimes.MelanieGreenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html.Chapter2TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. 36. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion 37. NikePlusStatsforKarl 38. Recommendations Embedfactstobelearnedinthecontextofstories. Usestoriesthatarerelatedtothecontextofthedesiredlearningoutcome. 39. Weve Always Wanted Characters 40. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner..Is that Factor Fishy? 41. FISHY:Ontransfertestsinvolvingdifferentwordproblems,the groupwhohadacharactergenerated30%morecorrect answersthanthegroupwithonscreentext. Animatedpedagogicalagents(characters)canbeaids tolearning.Arealisticcharacterdidnotfacilitate learninganybetterthanacartoonlikecharacter.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. 42. Researchindicatesthatlearnersperceive,interactsocially withandareinfluencedbyanthropomorphicagents(characters)evenwhentheirfunctionalityandadaptabilityarelimited. http://codebaby.com/elearningsolutions/examples/ 43. Whoismorelikelytorun24hourslater?A. Personwhowatchedanavatarthatdidnot looklikethemrunningB. Personwhowatchedanavatarthatlooked likethemrunningC. Personwatchinganavatarthatlookedlike themloitering/hangingout 44. Within24hoursofwatchinganavatarlikethemselvesrun,learnersweremorelikelytorunthanwatchinganavatarnotlikethemor watchinganavatarlikethemloitering.Fox, J., Arena, D., &amp; Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology,21 (3), 95-113. 45. Iflearnerswatchanavatarthatlookslikethemexercising&amp;losingweight,theywillsubsequentlyexercisemoreintherealworldascomparedtoacontrol group.Fox, J., Arena, D., &amp; Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 2195-113. 46. MalonesTheoryofIntrinsicallyMotivatingInstruction Challenge FantasyCuriosityMalone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369. 47. Fantasy There are both cognitive and emotional reasons forevoking fantasy. Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner applyold knowledge to understand new things and help themremember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect withthe experiences and not bring with it real-world concerns orfears.ImagecourtesyofGameOn!LearningMalone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369. 48. Provide a challengeJones,B.,Valdez,G.,Norakowski,J.,&amp;Rasmussen,C.(1994).Designinglearningandtechnologyforeducationalreform.NorthCentralRegionalEducationalLaboratory.[Online].Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm andSchlechty,P.C.(1997).Inventingbetterschools:Anactionplanforeducationalreform.SanFrancisco,CA:JosseyBass.Chapter2TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. g 49. RedesigntheInstructionto StartwithaChallenge 50. InvestigatoryTraining CourseObjectives IdentifytheFormsRequiredforanInvestigation PracticeInterviewTechniques DescribeandFollowtheInvestigationModelHowwouldyouturnthisintoachallenge? 51. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do? 52. Curiosity Game environments can evoke a learners curiosityby providing an optimal level of informational complexity and anovel and exciting game space. Cognitive curiosity is evoked bymaking learners believe their knowledge structures areinconsistent or incomplete. Provide surprising and constructivefeedback.Malone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369. 53. EvidenceBasedRecommendations UseChallengetoengagementlearners. Fantasyisanacceptableandpositiveelementforinstructionalgames 54. Games can influencepeople to behave in apositive manner.Is that Fact or Fishy? 55. Fact: Games can influencepeople to behave in a positive manner.Greitemeyer,T.&amp;Osswald,S.(2010)EffectiveofProsocial gamesonprosocial behavior.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology.Vol.98.No.2.,211221. 56. 28%helpedtopickuppencils 57. 33%helpedtopickuppencils 58. 67%helpedtopickuppencils 59. 22%intervened 60. 56%intervened 61. 1) Useagame/simulationtoprovideacontextforthelearning.2) Dontfocusonentertainment.3) Carefullycraftthesimulation/gametoprovideopportunitiestoincrease engagementandinteractivitytoincreaselearning.4) Embedthegame/simulationintothecurriculum.Providesetup,game timeanddebrief.5) Embedfactstobelearnedinthecontextofstories.6) Usestoriesthatarerelatedtothecontextofthedesiredoutcome.7) Usecharacters/agentstomodeldesiredbehavior.8) Usecharacters/agentstoprovidefeedbackandinstructiontolearners. 62. QUESTIONS?ContactKarlviaTwitteroremailTwitter:@kkappkkapp@bloomu.edu </p>