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Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis

Fellmann11e ch2

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Page 1: Fellmann11e ch2

Human Geography

Jerome D. FellmannMark BjellandArthur GetisJudith Getis

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Human Geography


Roots & Meaning of Culture

Insert figure 2.19b

Photo credit: © Getty RF

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Human Geography 11e

Components of Culture

• Culture Traits• Culture Complex• Culture System• Culture Region• Culture Realm• Globalization

Photo credit: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Barry Barker, photographer

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Human Geography 11e

Components of Culture• Culture Traits

– Units of learned behavior– Tools– Languages– Objects– Techniques or beliefs– Elementary expressions of culture

• Culture Complex– Traits that are functionally interrelated– The assemblage of traits

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Human Geography 11e

Components of Culture

• Traits and complexes have areal extent and they can be plotted on maps

• Culture System– A broader generalization than a cultural

complex– Refers to the collection of interacting cultural

traits and cultural complexes that are shared by a group within a particular territory

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Human Geography 11e

Components of Culture• Culture Region

– A portion of the earth’s surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

• Culture Realm– A set of culture regions grouped whenever they

show related cultural complexes and landscapes

• Globalization– Homogenization of cultures as economies are

integrated and uniform consumer demands are satisfied by standardized commodities

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Human Geography 11e

People and Environment• Environments as Controls

– Environmental Determinism• The belief that the physical environment exclusively

shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts

– Possibilism• A reaction against environmental determinism;

people are dynamic forces of development (the environment is not as dynamic like human beings)

• Human Impacts– Cultural Landscape

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Human Geography 11e

Roots of Culture

• Hunter-Gatherers– Pre-agricultural people dependent on

the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure

– Rudimentary stone tools and weapons– Hunters and gatherers required

considerable territory to support a relatively small number of individuals

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Human Geography 11e

Seeds of Change

• Cultural Divergence• Carrying Capacity

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Human Geography 11e

Agricultural Origins and Spread

• Domestication of Animals and Plants– Farming– Plant Domestication

• Food crops cultivated• Raising crops

– Animal Domestication• The successful breeding of species that are

dependent on human beings

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Human Geography 11e

Neolithic Innovations

• “New Stone” Age

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Human Geography 11e

Culture Hearth

• The place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape.

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Human Geography 11e

• Multilinear Evolution– The common characteristics of widely

separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances

– Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas

– Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques• Significant time and space differences

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Human Geography 11e

• Diffusionism– Cultural similarities are the product of spatial

spread from common origin sites

• Cultural Convergence– Differences between places are being reduced

by improved communications leading to homogenization

– Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems

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Human Geography 11e

The Structure of Culture

• Ideological Subsystem– Mentifacts

• Technological Subsystem– Artifacts

• Sociological Subsystem– Sociofacts

• Cultural Integration

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Human Geography 11e

Culture Change

• Innovation– Cultural Lag

• Resistance to change

• Diffusion– The process by which an idea or

innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space

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Human Geography 11e

– Expansion Diffusion• Contagious diffusion affects nearly uniformly

all individuals and areas outward from the source region

• Hierarchical Diffusion involves processes of transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people, and later to smaller or less important points or people

• During stimulus diffusion, a fundamental idea, not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior

– Spread of the concept but not the specific system

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Human Geography 11e

Culture Change– Relocation Diffusion

• The idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals

– Acculturation • A culture is modified• Adoption of traits of another dominant group• Immigrant populations take on the values,

attitudes, customs, and speech of the receiving society, which itself undergoes change from absorption of the arriving group.

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Human Geography 11e

Contact between Regions

• Diffusion Barriers– Any conditions that hinder either the

flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation

• Syncretism– The process of the fusion of the old and

new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change