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The Union in Peril. The Divisive Politics of Slavery

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Chapter 4

The Union in PerilChapter 4Section 1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryDifferent climates and religions lead to different values and economiesIn order to maintain the Union, a balance of power must be reached and maintained.Every time this balance of power is threatened we sit on the brink of warSlavery ends up dividing the nationSouth is angry that the North wants to rid them of the way they make their money, it would be like the South demanding the North shut down all their factoriesDifference Between North and SouthBecause of the population boom caused by the Gold Rush, California can apply for statehood in 1850Californias new constitution prohibited slavery which made Southerners mad since they assumed California would be a slave state due to the fact the most of it existed below the slave line (But remember that was ONLY for the Louisiana Territory)

Statehood for CaliforniaHenry Clays ideaNorth gets California admitted as a free stateSouth gets Fugitive Slave Act (slaves who escaped to the North now have to be returned to the South and anyone who helps runaways will be fined or imprisoned)Both get Popular Sovereignty for Utah and New Mexico (meaning people in those states will vote whether they want to be free or not)Compromise of 1850Underground RailroadA system of routes used by abolitionists to help free slaves from the SouthConductors provided runaways with food, clothing, shelter during the day and directions to the next stationHarriet Tubman- most famous conductor, escaped from slavery herself and then returned to the South to help 300 others escape

Uncle Toms Cabin

Book written by Harriet Beecher StoweStressed slavery was a moral issueEncouraged whites to increase protests, Southerners hated and banned it

People wanted to use Popular Sovereignty in these territories to decide issue of slavery, but it is legally closed to slavery because it is above the Mason-Dixon lineBill proposed to split the territories in two and establish Popular Sovereignty in both

Kansas/NebraskaBoth supporters and opponents of slavery sent people to populate Kansas in order to win the voteBorder Ruffians from Missouri crossed the border, voted illegally and won the electionThey set up a proslavery government in LecomptonThe other side got mad and set up an antislavery government in TopekaStruggle turns violentBleeding KansasViolence in the SenateSenator Charles Sumner spoke against slavery for two days and criticized Senator Andrew Butler in particularButlers nephew Preston S. Brooks showed up in the chamber and beat Sumner until his cane brokeSumner suffered brain damage and didnt return to work for three years

Whigs in both the North and the SouthCant agree on a national platformThose in the South want proslavery and pro-UnionThose in the North look for other alternatives like the Know-Nothing, Democratic, Republican, Liberty, Free-SoilSlavery Divides WhigsAlternative to abolitionism, not all Northerners favor blacksWant anti-black laws but dislike slaverys competition with free white workersFree-SoilersOpponents of slavery in territoriesFree-Soilers, antislavery Whigs and Democrats, nativists from the North all joined to strengthen the partyIn the election of 1856, John C. Fremont vs. James Buchanan, Fremont loses which postpones the secession of the SouthNew Republican PartySlave who lived in Missouri with his master, master took him to live in the free territories of Illinois and Wisconsin, then back to the SouthDred Scott sued, claiming that he should have been freed when he went to the free territoriesAfter years the Supreme Court finally said Scott was not a citizen and therefore could not sue, and on top of that the 5th amendment protects property and therefore living in a free territory does not make a slave freeGuarantees the expansion of slavery because slave owners can take their property into an new territoryDred Scott Decision

Dred ScottIn the 1858 Senate race Lincoln challenged Douglas to a debate about slavery in the territoriesNeither wanted slavery in the territories, but disagreed how to keep it out. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty, Lincoln believed in abolitionLincoln asks if territories can vote to keep slavery out before they become a state, Dred Scoot says no , which means popular sovereignty is meaninglessDouglas says people can get around Dred Scott by electing Free-Soilers that wont enforce the lawImportant because it split Democrats and made Republicans consider Lincoln for president

Lincoln-Douglas DebatesLincoln vs. Douglas

Harpers Ferry

John Brown studied slave uprising and decided it was time to have one hereNight of October 16, 1859 he led a band of 21 men to an arsenal at Harpers FerryTroops met them and put down the rebellionBrown was tried and executedLincoln ElectedElection of 1860, Lincoln vs. Douglas vs. Breckenridge vs. BellToo many options means Lincoln wins although he had less than half the popular vote and no electoral votes from the South (where he mostly wasnt even on the ballot)

Lincolns victory ticks off the SouthDecember 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and TexasMake their own country called the Confederacy, they write their own constitution, and elect Jefferson Davis as presidentNorth has the option to let them go peacefully or fight to keep the Union togetherSouthern SecessionSection 2The Civil War BeginsAttack on Fort Sumter

Confederacy started seizing Union forts.By Lincolns inauguration in March only 4 forts remained in Union handsOn April 12, 1861 the South attacked Fort Sumter and it fell.Lincoln then called for army volunteers and Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee seceded. West Virginia then seceded from Virginia and joined the Union (Total=11).Border states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouri stayed.Strengths and StrategiesNorthMore people, more factories, more food production, more railroadsBlockade Southern ports, Split Confederacy on MississippiCapture capital of Richmond, Virginia.SouthKing CottonFirst-rate generalsHighly motivated soldiersDefensive strategy25 miles from Washington D.C.Union gains upper hand to start, but Stonewall Jackson earns his nickname by refusing to give inAt the end of the day the Confederates win the victory, but are too exhausted to follow their victory up with and attack on Washington D.C.Many Confederate soldiers go home convinced their victory was so great that the war was over in a single battleBattle of Bull RunLincoln ramps up enlistments and appointments General McClellanTroops in the West fight for control of the Mississippi under General Grants commandHe wins several victories but is surprised by an attack at Shiloh where of the 100,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or capturedGeneral Farragut seizes New Orleans and heads NorthThe two Generals only have three forts left in their way of the Confederacy-splitting goal.Union Armies in the WestSpring 1862 McClellan was gaining on RichmondRobert E. Lee took over and drove McClellan awayBy September Lee is nearing D.C.McClellans men find some cigars with Lees orders wrapped around them and discover the Southern army is currently splitMcClellan goes after Lees half, they fight the bloodiest single-day battle in American history at Antietam with 26,000 deadLee retreats, McClellan does not follow and end the war, so Lincoln fires himWar for the CapitalsSouth assumed Great Britain would side with them since they often bought a lot of cotton from the South.Great Britain foresaw the war and stocked up on cotton.They now need the Norths wheat and corn, but remain officially neutralGreat Britains RollEmancipation ProclamationLincoln believed he could not abolish slavery where it already existedHis way around this was by saying the South was using slaves as weapons of war and therefore his troops could free themOnly frees slaves where he cannot (no slaves are immediately set free)Gives war a moral cause and ensures no compromise

Not everyone agreed with the war so there was dissent on both sides.Both sides then held people without charging themBoth sides turned to conscription (drafting) to keep people in the army

Political DissentFought for BOTH the North and the SouthIn the North they made up 1/10 of the army, but were still treated poorly, segregated and paid less.African American SoldiersKilling technologies advanced faster than healing technologies so it was a particularly bloody warLack of supplies, medical care and clean surroundings led to body lice and dysenteryPOWs were held in even worse conditions, 15% of Union prisoners died in the South, 12% of Confederate prisoners died in the NorthSoldiers Suffer on Both SidesAlthough they did not fight, they helped the war through medical careLike Clara Barton who eventually founded the Red Cross or Sally Tompkins who was commissioned as a captainWomen Work to Improve ConditionsWar expanded Norths economy, destroyed Souths economySouth faced food shortage and inflation of 7000%War boosts Northern factories and industries, but wages do not keep up with growth and prices so people end up with a lower cost of livingCongress needs to pay for the war so they start the first income taxWar Affect Regional EconomiesSection 3The North Takes ChargeSouth was winning the warOnly consolation for North was that General Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot by his own men. After his arm was amputated he caught pneumonia and died.The Tide TurnsUnion troops take positions in the hills surrounding the town90,000 Union vs. 75, 000 Confederate by end of Day 1Day 2, Confederates took control of the town and Union only held Cemetery RidgeConfederates come from Seminary Ridge, for two hours they exchange fire until the North stops. South thinks they are out of ammo and rush the field only to get slaughteredEnd 23,000 Union