The Roman World Takes Shape

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The Roman World Takes Shape. Chapter 5 Section 1. Romans Settle Italy. Italy much easier to unify than Greece The city on seven hills (Rome) Legend has it: Twin brothers- Romulus and Remus- founded the city of Rome Etruscans lived North of Rome Romans learned much from the Etruscans. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Roman World Takes Shape

The Roman World Takes ShapeChapter 5 Section 11

2Romans Settle ItalyItaly much easier to unify than GreeceThe city on seven hills (Rome)Legend has it: Twin brothers- Romulus and Remus- founded the city of RomeEtruscans lived North of RomeRomans learned much from the Etruscans3

4Rome Establishes a Republic Senators: Patricians; served for life and made laws for RomeConsuls: Patricians; elected by Senate to supervise the running of RomeDictators: Patricians; elected by Senate on occasions of warTribunes: Plebeians; elected by Plebeians to guard the interest of PlebeiansCitizen-soldiers: Citizens; served in the Roman army

5Characterizing Roman SocietyFamily was basic unit- male head of household; ideal woman was loving, dignified, and strongWomen played a larger role in society than did Greek women6Roman Republic GrowsGenerally treated conquered lands with justiceHad to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman armyIn return Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local governmentsTo a privileged few, Rome gave full citizenship/ others partial citizenshipMost conquered lands stayed loyal to Rome 7From republic to EmpireChapter 5 Section 28Rome grows through conquestRome began to expand westward conflict between Rome and Carthage became inevitableBetween 264 B.C. and 146 B.C. three wars were fought against Carthage (Punic Wars)1st Punic War: Rome defeated Carthage and won islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia9

102nd Punic War: Hannibal led his army from the North on a surprise attack- won battle after battle in Italy until Romans attacked CarthageFailed to take Rome3rd Punic War: Rome completely destroyed Carthage- survivors were killed or sold into slaveryRomans poured salt on the earth so nothing would grow


12The Roman Republic DeclinesDebate over who should hold power- the senate or popular political leadersLed to slave uprisings at homeOld legions of citizen-soldiers became professional armies who were loyal to their commanders

13Julius CaesarCaesar and Pompey dominated politicsCaesar set out with private army to conquer new lands (Gaul)Fearful of Caesars power- Pompey convinced Senate to disband Caesars armyCaesar secretly marched into Rome and crushed Pompey and his followersThen continued on his quest of conquering more landUpon his return to Rome, he forced the Senate to make him dictator14Julius Caesar ContPushed through many reformsProgram of public works Reorganized government and gave more citizenshipIntroduced a new calendar (became our calendar today)Enemies were fearful of his power so they stabbed him to death15His death plunged Rome into new civil warsMark Antony and Octavian joined forces to find Caesars murdersLed to a dispute between the two Octavian defeated Anthony and his ally Queen Cleopatra of EgyptOctavian changed his name to Augustus- Exalted OneAvoided calling himself king- but did name a successor as a king would doBegan the Age of the Roman Empire

16Roman EmpireAugustus laid the foundation for a stable governmentLeft senate in place and created an efficient civil serviceHigh level jobs open to men of talent, not based on classAllowed self-government to outlying cities and providencesAlso made economic reforms:Ordered a census to make taxes more fairSet up postal serviceIssued new coins to make trade easier17Augustus SuccessorsNot all were competent and strongCaligula appointed his horse as a consulNero persecuted Christians and was blamed for setting a great fire that burned much of Rome96-180 a series of good emperorsHadrian codified Roman law and had a large wall built for protectionMarcus Aurelius read philosophy while leading wars18Pax Romana Brings ProsperityAugustus to Aurelius is known as Pax Romana or Roman PeaceRoman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity from Euphrates River in east to Britain in west (size of continental US)Legions maintained and protected roads and trade routesTrade expanded greatlyDuring this time prosperity hid underlying social and economic problems

19The Roman AchievementCh. 5 Sec. 3 20Literature, History, PhilosophyMany Romans spoke Greek and used their style and prose in poetryMany wrote in LatinVirgil: Wrote to prove Roman history was as great as Greek historyWrote Aeneid21Literature, History, Philosophy contOthers wrote to satirize (make fun of) Roman societyHistorians wrote bout rise and fall of RomeLivy wrote about tales of heroesTacitus wrote bitterly about Augustus and his followersRomans borrowed Greek philosophyStoicism became popular from the Hellenistic society22Art and ArchitectureArt was similar to Greek- sculptors focused on realismRomans focused on revealing an individuals characterArt was used to beautify the home Also known for their frescos and mosaicsArchitecture emphasized grandeurImproved the use of columns and archesMost famous domed structure- Pantheon23Science and MAthmaticsRomans were engineers: a mix of mathematics and science to develop structures and machinesBuilt roads, bridges, and harborsAlso built aqueducts: bridgelike stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman citiesRomans left science research to the Greek, now part of the Roman empire 24New Law CodesLaw fostered unity and stabilityInnocent until proven guiltyThe accused is allowed to face the accuser and offer a defense against the chargeGuilt had to be established clearer than daylight using solid evidenceJudges were allowed to interpret the laws and were expected to make fair decisionsPenalties varied according to social class, lower-class were treated more harshly25Rise of ChristianityCh. 5 Sec. 426Diverse Religions in RomeVarious religions coexisted leading Roman gods remained importantSome turned to mystery religionsCult of Isis- women were equal to menRoman soldiers favored cult of Persian god Mithras- good over evil/ life after deathToleration as long as people tolerated Roman gods and acknowledged the divine spirit of the emperor


28Divisions in JudeaRomans conquered Judea by 63 B.C.Romans excused Jews from worshiping Roman gods because they were monotheisticAmong Jews themselves, religious ferment created divisionsJewish conservatives rejected Hellenistic influences and called for strict obedience to Jewish law and traditions

29Rise of ChristianityAs turmoil engulfed Jews, Christianity began to rise among followers of a Jew named JesusMost of what we know about Jesus comes from the Gospels (First 4 books of New Testament of Christian bible)

30Jesus Begins PreachingBorn about 4 B.C. in Bethlehem, he was a descendent of King David of Israel Jesus grew up in Nazareth worshiping God and following Jewish lawBegan preaching around age 30 He recruited 12 of his disciples who became apostlesAfter 3 years Jesus went to Jerusalem to spread his message there

31Jesus Teaches New BeliefsJesus teachings were firmly rooted in Jewish traditionPreached obedience in the laws of Moses but also preached new beliefsHis mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to all who believed in him

32Jesus Persecution Some Jews welcomed Jesus, others saw him as a troublemakerRoman authorities saw him as a threatJesus was betrayed by one of his disciples and arrested, tried, and condemned to deathAfter death on the cross Gospels report he ascended into heaven

33Message of Christianity spreadsDisciples continued to spread Jesus messageFollowers became known as ChristiansPeter spread Christianity to Rome itselfPaul played most influential role in spreading ChristianityPaul traveled around Mediterranean and set up churches Also wrote letters to Christians to help spread


35Christians are oppressedRomans no longer tolerated ChristiansChristians met in secret to avoid persecution/ rumors spread they were engaged in evil practicesPeter and Paul were martyred during reign of NeroChristianity continued to spread despite the attacks- even brought more converts

36Early Church DevelopsTo join Christian community- person had to be baptized or blessed in holy waterThe Baptized ate bread and drank wine in a sacred rite called Eurcharist in memory of Jesus

37Differences arise within the churchRivalry within church officials caused divisions between east and westLed to heresies: beliefs said to contrary to official Church teachings

38The Long DeclineCh. 5 Sec. 539Roman empire faced threats from inside and outside the empireEconomic problemsForeign invasionDecline in traditional valuesUndermined stability and security40Problems in The Empire Death of Marcus Aurelius- Rome spiraled into political and economic declineDisruptive political pattern emergedConstant overturning of the throne26 emperors resigned in 50 yearsHigh taxes to support army placed heavy burdens on small business and small farmersFarmland lost its productivityFarmers became slaves even though they were free

41Emperor Diocletian Shares PowerDiocletian set out to restore orderDivided the empire in half to make it easier to ruleHe kept control of wealthy eastGave co-emperor Maximian the West



44Constantine Makes further reforms312 General Constantine gained the throneContinued Diocletians reforms and made more:Granted toleration to ChristiansEstablished a new capital at Byzantium, which he renamed ConstantinopleEastern empire became New Rome and was center of power


46Improvements Prove TemporaryReforms of Diocletian and Constantine had mixed resultsRevived the economyHeld empire together Failed to stop long-term declineInternal problems and attacks from the outside bring down the empire47Invaders threaten Roman EmpireEvents in East Asia forced nomadic people, Huns, from central Asia toward eastern EuropeFought fierce battles against Germanic people who then sought refuge by the RomansWith