The Roman World Takes Shape. Truly the Romans were justified in calling the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum or “Our Sea.” Assess the validity of this statement. The Roman World Takes Shape. Geography – Boot shaped peninsula centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Roman World Takes Shape
The Roman World Takes ShapeTruly the Romans were justified in calling the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum or Our Sea.
Assess the validity of this statement.The Roman World Takes ShapeGeography Boot shaped peninsula centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea.The city of Rome was located in the center of Italy.Italy, as compared to Greece, was easier to unify because of geography:Less rugged mountainsConnected not isolated islandsFertile plains in the North and West supported a large population
The Roman World Takes ShapePeoples Ancestors were Indo-Europeans called Latins.Established villages along the Tiber River. These villages would later grow creating Rome.Shared the peninsula with Greek colonists in the South and Etruscans in the North.Diffused with the Etruscans and the Greeks:AlphabetArch, Column, EngineeringReligion & Government
The Roman World Takes ShapeCultural Diffusion Spread important aspects of Greece, Egypt, and Fertile Crescent West into Europe.Strong belief in the Roman virtues of courage, loyalty, and devotion to duty.The Roman World Takes ShapeRoman PatriciansVery powerful members of the Senate.300 elected with life terms.Landholding upper-class.Elects 2 Consuls supervise the business and military affairs.Issue decrees and interpret laws.The Roman World Takes ShapeRoman PlebeianFarmers, merchants, artisans, and traders.Looking to gain more power:12 TablesElection of TribunesElection of Plebeian to the SenateThe Roman World Takes ShapeRoman SoldiersLegion 5000 menWell disciplined, efficient, courageous, and trained army.Citizen Soldiers fought without pay and with their own weapons.Operated with a rewards and punishment system.The Roman World Takes ShapeRoman SocietyMale dominant absolute power.Women worked at home but could run businesses. Over time, women gained more freedom and influence.Children were educated especially the wealthy. Some used Greek tutors.Religion closely resembled the gods and goddesses of the Etruscans and Greeks.The Roman World Takes ShapeA Citizen of a Conquered LandTreated with justice and toleration.Had to acknowledge Roman supremacy and leadership.Had to pay tribute ($$) to Rome and supply soldiers.Allowed to keep their own customs.Roman Empire was protected by military outposts and connected by an all-weather road system. Romes Early Road System
Roman Roads: The Appian Way
Imperial Roman Road System
From Republic to EmpireThe Punic Wars (264B.C. 146 B.C.) 1st Punic War Rome gains Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia2nd Punic War Rome defeats Hannibal and Carthage gives up all land except in Africa3rd Punic War Rome destroys Carthage and controls all of the Mediterranean
**Imperialism establishing control over foreign lands and peoples**
From Republic to EmpireEffects of Expansion New provinces with rich trade routes A new wealthy class develops. Lavish mansions - huge plantations - inexpensive food. This hurt small farmers because it caused a drop in prices Farmers became part of an unemployed angry class which led to riots. Gap between rich & poor.
From Republic to EmpireGracchus Reforms Distributed land to the poor.Use funds to feed the poor.Offer full citizenship to allies.Both were killed as they were a threat to the power of the Senate. Civil Wars 100 years Caused by a struggle for power. From Republic to EmpireJulius Caesar Dominated Roman military & politics. Conquests of new lands (Gaul).Threat to the Senate & Pompey. Forced Senate to make him dictator.Reforms included public works, unemployment, redistribution of land, province reorganization, offer citizenship, Julian Calendar (still in use).Killed by rivals sets off war between Marc Anthony & OctavianBeware the Ides of March!44 BCE
From Republic to EmpireOctavian After Caesar, he becomes the new dictator and is renamed Augustus. Sets up a stable government, efficient civil service, job opportunities, self-government to provinces, a new census to make the tax system fair, creates a postal system, new currency, and public works.Official end of the Republic.
From Republic to EmpireGood & Bad Emperors Caligula & Nero bad, brutal, and insane rulers.Hadrian & Marcus Aurelius - Good, stable rulers.Pax Romana 200 year period from Augustus to Aurelius.Prosperous trade, safe society, and cultural diffusion. From Republic to EmpireFamily, Religion, and Entertainment Male run household.Women gained freedom.Celebrated many gods and goddesses very similar to the Greeks. Circus Maximus, gladiator contests, Bread & Circuses (food/drink for the poor).Greece has conquered her rude conquerorHorace
Assess the validity of this statement.Greco-Roman CivilizationLiterature, Philosophy & History Used many Greek stylesAeneid, by Virgil spoke of Roman heroismHistory taught about the rise and fall of Roman power.Philosophy of Stoicism, which influenced Christianity and emphasized the well being of humans.
The Twelve TablesGreco-Roman CivilizationArt & Architecture Imported Greek statues.Used Greek decorations.Use of the column, dome and arch.Construction was usually larger than Greek architecture (Parthenon vs. Pantheon).The Roman Forum
The Pantheon and Santa Maria Sopra MinervaThe Roman Colosseum (Coliseum)
The Colosseum Interior
Greco-Roman CivilizationLegal System Concepts have been shared with many western civilization and cultures including the United States.Two systems Civil Law laws that applied to citizensLaw of Nations laws that applied to citizens and non-citizens.Legal system created unity and stability (140).Greco-Roman CivilizationSciences Excelled in building bridges, aqueducts, sewers, water lines, and bath houses.Ptolemy Earth was the center of the universe.Galen Medical dictionary.Concern for scientific experiments, mapmaking, public health issues, science, math, and a wide variety of subject areas.Roman Aqueducts
Roman AqueductsCircus Maximus
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire 14 CE
The Rise of ChristianityRomans were basically tolerant of the varied religious traditions in the empire, and even excused the Jews from worshipping Roman gods, which would have been a violation of Judaism.Founded by Jesus, Christianity rose out of Palestine and was firmly rooted in the Jewish religion.Despite Roman persecution, Christianity spread, partly due to its welcome of all people, especially the poor and oppressed.Over time, the Christian Church developed into a hierarchical organization that allowed only men to become members of the clergy.
The Rise of Christianity
The Spread of Christianity
The Fall of the Roman EmpireRoman civilization did not die a natural death. It was murdered.Andre Piganiol -
Asses the validity of this statement.The Fall of the Roman EmpireThe Upheaval of RomeDeath of Marcus Aurelius End of the Pax RomanaNumerous emperors to followHigh taxesDebt slaveryForeign invaders Germanic peoples, Huns (Attila), Visigoths, Vandals, Angles, Lombards, etc.The Fall of the Roman EmpireAttempts at ReformDiocletian Divided the empire into two parts to restore order and make it easier to govern (East & West).Increase the image of the emperor by establishing lavish ceremonies and rituals. Ex: RobeFixed prices on goods and servicesFarmers had to remain on their lands and sons had to keep the occupation of their father.The Fall of the Roman EmpireAttempts at ReformConstantine Toleration to Christians by issuing the Edict of Milan. A new Capital was formed and called ConstantinopleConstantinople made the Eastern portion of the Roman Empire the center of Roman life.The Fall of the Roman EmpireThe Death of RomeMilitary Lacked desire, discipline, and training. Had to rely on mercenaries.Government Oppressive, Authoritarian, corrupt and divided. Economics High taxes, debt, poverty, slavery, and laziness.Social Decline in values such as patriotism, loyalty, devotion, and self-reliance. Christianity Use of roads to spread message, devotion to God and not to the state, the offer of salvation provided hope. The Empire in Crisis: 3c
Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 CE
Constantinople: The 2nd Rome (Founded in 330)