The Conflict Takes ShapeChapter 17, Section 1
Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and the SouthNorthern StrengthsThe North had a large population to call on for food production and military service.The North had most of the nations factories. Before the war, they produced more than 90 percent of the nations manufactured goods. The North had a strong navy and a large fleet of merchant ships.Southern StrengthsDefending their homeland and way of life gave white southerners a strong reason to fight.Confederate soldiers knew the southern countryside.Southern civilians helped the Confederate forces.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and the SouthNorthern WeaknessesNorthern soldiers had to conquer a huge area. Instead of defending their homes, they were invading unfamiliar land.Union supply lines had to stretch out much farther than Confederate ones.Southern WeaknessesThe South had few factories to produce weapons and other supplies.The South had few railroads to move troops and supplies. Many rail lines did not connect to a railroad network. The Confederate constitution favored states rights and limited the central government. Sometimes, this made it difficult to get things done.The South had a small population compared to the North. As a result, the South did not have enough people to support the war effort.The South had few ships.
Confederate President Jefferson Davis:Union President Abraham Lincoln:Confederate Commander Robert E. Lee:attended the United States Military Academy at West Pointwas an officer in the Mexican Warwas Secretary of War under President Franklin Piercewas respected for his honesty and couragedid not have much experience in national politicsdid not have military experienceturned out to be a strong leader and fine war plannerhad a sense of humorcould accept criticismLincoln had asked him to command the Union armywas loyal to his state of Virginia
No Easy VictoryChapter 17, Section 2
Strategies for Winning the WarUnion plansUse the navy to blockade southern ports.In the East, seize the Confederate capitalRichmond, Virginia.In the West, seize control of the Mississippi River. This would keep the Confederates from using the river to supply troops, and it would also separate Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana from the rest of the Confederacy.Confederate plansFight a defensive war until northerners tired of fighting and gave up.Use European money and supplies to help fight the war. Southerners expected Europeans to recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation.
A Promise of FreedomChapter 17, Section 3
Lincolns Goal in the WarIf I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.
Abraham Lincoln, August 22, 1862,quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln
The Emancipation ProclamationWhat was the Emancipation Proclamation?Abraham Lincoln decided to emancipate, or free, enslaved African Americans living in the Confederacy. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, the formal declaration that freed slaves in the Confederacy, but not in slave states that remained with the Union or in Confederate lands that had been captured by the Union.Why did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation?Emancipation would weaken the Confederacys ability to carry on the war. He hoped to introduce the idea of emancipation slowly, by limiting it to territory controlled by the Confederacy. He expected to introduce the idea of emancipation in other areas later.
The Emancipation ProclamationWhat impact did the Emancipation Proclamation have?The declaration changed the purpose of the war. Now, Union troops were fighting to end slavery as well as to save the Union.Southerners were angered. They saw the declaration as a fiends act to destroy their property.Europeans were sympathetic to the proclamation. Now they were less likely to side with the South.
African American Contributions in the WarFree African Americans and escaped slaves enlisted in the Union army.At first black troops served only as laborers, building roads and guarding supplies.By 1863, African American troops were fighting in major battles. One of the most famous African American units was the 54th Massachusetts Regiment. In 1863, this regiment led an attack on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. Under heavy fire, they fought their way into the fort before they were forced to retreat. The bravery of these soldiers helped win respect for African American soldiers.Behind Confederate lines, many enslaved African Americans slowed down work or refused to work at all. Wherever a Union army appeared, slaves from all over the area would cross the Union lines to freedom. By the end of the war, about one fourth of the Souths enslaved population had escaped.
Hardships of WarSection 4
The Hard Life of SoldiersMost soldiers were under the age of 21. As the death toll rose, the South drafted boys as young as 17 and men as old as 50.New technology added to the horror of war. In most battles, one fourth or more of the soldiers were killed or wounded.Medical care on the battlefield was crude. Surgeons routinely amputated injured arms and legs. Sanitary conditions were poor, and nothing was known about germs or how wounds became infected.Diseases like pneumonia and malaria killed more men than guns or cannons.
Problems at Home in the NorthSome northerners opposed using force to keep the South in the Union. Supporters of the war called these people Copperheads, after the poisonous snake. There was a shortage of volunteers to serve in the army. Some men took money to enlist in the army, then deserted. In 1863, Congress passed a draft law, a law requiring all able-bodied males between ages 20 and 45 to serve in the military if they were called. Opposition to the draft law led to riots. President Lincoln moved to stop the riots and other disloyal practices. Several times, he suspended habeas corpus, the right to be charged or have a hearing before being jailed. The President also said that those arrested could be tried under the stricter rules of a military court.
Problems at Home in the SouthMany southerners firmly believed in states rights. They resisted paying taxes to a central government, so the government could not collect enough money to pay for the war. Like the North, the South was forced to pass a draft law to fill its army.Near the end of the war, the South no longer had enough white men to fill the ranks. The Confederate congress reluctantly agrees to let enslaved African Americans serve. The war ends before this can take place.
How the War Affected the Southern EconomyIncome taxTo pay for the war, Congress established the nations first income tax, or tax on peoples earnings, in 1861. A new agency, the Internal Revenue Bureau, oversaw the collection of taxes.InflationThe Union issued millions of dollars worth of bonds. When taxes and bonds did not raise enough money, the North printed more than $400 million in paper money. As the money supply increased, each dollar became worth less. In response, businesses raised their prices. The North experienced inflation, a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money.Increased farm productionWith so many farmers going off to war, the demand rose for farm machines to plant and harvest crops. Farm production actually went up.Increased industrial profitsWartime demand for clothing, shoes, guns, and other goods helped many northern industries. Some manufacturers made fortunes by profiteering. Profiteers charged excessive prices for desperately needed war goods.
How the War Affected the Northern EconomyIncome taxTo raise money, the Confederacy imposed an income tax and a tax-in-kind. The tax-in-kind required farmers to turn over one tenth of their crops to the government.InflationThe South printed so much paper money that wild inflation set in.Loss of the cotton tradeThe war damaged the cotton trade. President Davis stopped the Souths cotton trade with Britain. He was hoping to force Britain to side with the South in return for cotton. Britain, however, just bought its cotton from Egypt and India instead. Severe shortagesThe Union blockade created severe shortages of goods from overseas. The South began to build and run its own factories. The blockade also brought food shortages. Many plantations switched from growing cotton to raising grain and livestock.
Women in the WarWith so many men gone to war, women took jobs in industry and on farms.Womens aid societies helped supply the troops with food, bedding, clothing, and medicine. Women held fundraisers to pay for war supplies.Women worked as nurses. Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton became nurses for the Union army. Sojourner Truth worked in Union hospitals. Sally Tompkins set up a Confederate hospital.
The War EndsChapter 17, Section 5
The Gettysburg AddressWe here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vainthat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomand that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863
Grants Plan for Ending the WarDestroy the Souths ability to fight by waging total war, a kind of warfare in which an army destroys everything that might be useful to the enemy, such as food and equipment.Grant sent General Philip Sheridan and his cavalry into the rich farmland of Virginias Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan destroyed farms, livestock, and barns filled with grain.Grant ordered General William Tecumseh Sherma