BDA 10803 Materials Science - 1 - BDA 10803...  BDA 10803 Materials Science Session 2015/2016 Semester

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BDA 10803 Materials Science Session 2015/2016 Semester II

P M D R . H A M I M A H B I N T I A B D. R A H M A N D e p t . o f M a t e r i a l s a n d D e s i g n E n g i n e e r i n g

F K M P, U T H M

C h a p te r O n e :

I N T RO D U C T I O N TO M AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E

Tanyakanlah lagi: "Siapakah

Tuhan yang memiliki dan

mentadbirkan langit yang tujuh,

dan Tuhan yang mempunyai

Arasy yang besar?"

(Al-Mu’minuun 23:86)

Maka sesiapa berbuat

kebajikan seberat zarah,

nescaya akan dilihatnya

(dalam surat amalnya)!

(Az-Zalzalah 99:7)

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MATERIALS and ENGINEERING

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Early History

• Paleolithic; approx. 2.5 million BC

• Flint: cutting edge easily formed by chippingSTONE Age

• Approx. 8000 – 5000 BC

• Pottery kilns hot enough to melt copper from ore. (Cu: Tm = 1085◦C, σy = 70 MPa or 10,000 lb/in2)

COPPER Age

• Approx. 3500 BC

• Alloying: add tin (Sn) into copper. (Sn: Tm = 232°C, σy = 125 MPa or 18,000 lb/in2) BRONZE Age

• Approx. 1500 BC

• Reduce Fe ore at high T with charcoal to capture O2, release Fe metal (Fe: Tm = 1538°C, σy = 275 MPa or 40,000 lb/in2. Add carbon to Fe → Steel! σy → > 1500 MPa (200,000 lb/in2)

IRON Age

Improved material properties,

Increase design flexibility!

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S T O N E Ag e C O P P E R Ag e

B R O N Z E Ag e I R O N Ag e 5

The Evolution Of Materials

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The Evolution Of Materials

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The Evolution Of Materials

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M A T E R I A L S S C I E N C E a n d

E N G I N E E R I N G

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W h a t A r e

M a t e r i a l s . . ?

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W h a t A r e M a t e r i a l s … ?

• Materials are all around us, from the clothes we

wear to the cars we drive, to airplanes,

computers, refrigerators, microwave ovens, TV,

dishes, silverware, athletic equipment, and

replacement joints and limbs.

• Materials make up all matter in the universe.

• The world we live in is both dependent on and

limited by the materials we HAVE.

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W hy S t u d y

M a t e r i a l

S c i e n c e . . ?

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Why Study Material Science?

 To be able to select a material for a given use based on considerations

of cast and performance.

 To understand the limits of materials and the change of their

properties with use.

 To be able to create a new material that will have some desirable

properties.

 Understanding of the relationship among structure, properties,

processing and performance of materials. Intelligent design of new

materials.

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Basic knowledge of materials

Applied knowledge of materials

Materials Science

Materials Science and Engineering

Materials Engineering

Resultant knowledge of the structure, processing,

and performance of engineering materials

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The essence of MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

S T R U C T U R E

M AT E R I A L S

P R O C E S S I N GP R O P E R t I E S

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The Essence of Materials Science & Engineering:

Another Opinion On The Essence

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• To study about types of materials • To know the process of metals, ceramics,

polymer and composite  To understand the subject  To use the materials science knowledge

for future career (able to apply knowledge)

 To score this subject  To get an ‘A’ for this subject  To pass this subject  It will be an interesting subject  One of the challenging subject  Questions in test & final exam are easy

and simple, not tricky  Study relax without pressure  To build good relationship between

student and lecturer  Dapat belajar dengan ikhlas  Berjaya dalam subjek  Menjadi mahasiswa yang berjaya  Dapat belajar dengan lebih faham

berbanding semasa diploma

• Pensyarah mengajar dengan cara yang paling ringkas di mana membantu kami score dlm peperiksaan

• Menyampaikan dengan cara yang paling mudah difahami

• Menekankan pada topik utama yang masuk peperiksaan (Give hint before test & final)

• Slides and materials for this course is provided

• Kalau boleh slide jangan banyak sangat • Mengajar dalam dwibahasa (dual

language) • Lecturer can make sure that we can

apply all the knowledge obtained in this class in the real world

• Hope the class will be more lively, the lecturer will teach us until we are fully understand

• More exercise will be given • Less explaination, more exercise • Spend more time for tutorial instead of

lecture • Give us freedom to study or learn by

our own style

FACTORS INVOLVED IN MATERIALS SELECTION

Mechanical Properties

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Shape Of Materials

Production Properties

Reliability & Availability

Cost & Materials Processing

Appearance, Life Time & Recycle

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PROPERTIES • Properties are the way the

material responds to the environment and external forces.

• Physical Properties: – characteristics of materials with

other forms of matter (jirim) and energy

• Mechanical properties: – describes how material responds

to applied forces; strength, ductility etc.

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PROPERTIES

• Electrical and magnetic properties:

– response electrical and magnetic fields, conductivity, etc.

• Thermal properties:

– related to transmission of heat and heat capacity.

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PROPERTIES

• Optical properties:

– include to absorption, transmission and scattering of light.

• Chemical stability

– in contact with the environment -corrosion resistance.

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T Y P E S o f M AT E R I A L S

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C l a s s o f M a t e r i a l s :

Modern Classification

MATERIALS

METALS

POLYMERS

ELECTRONIC MATERIALS

SEMI-

CONDUCTORCOMPOSITES

CERAMICS

BIO-

MATERIALS

NANO-

MATERIALS

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C l a s s o f M a t e r i a l s :

Tr a d i t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n

M E TA L

C E R A M I CP O LY M E R

C O M P O S I T E

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C l a s s o f M a t e r i a l s :

Traditional Classification

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M A

T E

R IA

LS

M E TA L S F e r r o u s

N o n - F e r r o u s

C E R A M I C S T r a d i t i o n a l

E n g i n e e r i n g

P O Y M E R S

T h e r m o p l a s t i c

T h e r m o s e t

E l a s t o m e r

C O M P O S I T E S

M e t a l M a t r i x

C e r a m i c M a t r i x

P o l y m e r M a t r i x

C l a s s o f M a t e r i a l s :

C AT E G O R I E S & E X A M P L E

• Metals – Iron, Copper, Aluminum, Zinc, Nickel,

Titanium, Silver, Gold, etc. and their alloys Steel, Brass, Bronze,etc.

• Ceramics – Porcelain China, Glass, Silicon

Carbide, Boron Nitride, Aluminum Oxide, etc.

• Polymers – Polyethylene, PVC, Teflon, Nylon,

Plexiglas, Bakelite, Epoxy, Polyesters, Melamine, Neoprene, Silicone,

• Composites – Concrete, MMC, CMC, Asphalt, Wood

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

M E TA L S

• Example: – Iron, Copper,

Aluminium, Zinc, Magnesium, Nickel, Titanium, Silver, Lead, Platinum, Gold, etc.

• And their alloys: – Steel, Brass, Bronze,

Cupronickel etc.

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

C E R A M I C S

• Porcelain China, Glass,

Silicon Carbide,

Silicone Nitride, Boron

Nitride, Titanium

Oxide, Aluminum

Oxide, etc.

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

P O LY M E R S

• Polyethylene, PVC, Teflon, Nylon, Plexiglas, Bakelite, Epoxy, Polyesters, Melamine, Neoprene, Silicone, etc.

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

C O M P O S I T E S

• MMC, PMC, CMC, Concrete, Wood, Asphalt, etc.

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

A D VA N C E D M AT E R I A L S

Materials that are utilized in high-technology.

Traditional materials – whose properties have been enhanced or newly developed, high-performance materials.

Device or product – operates or functions using relatively intricate and sophisticated principles.

Examples : VCRs, computers, fiber optic systems, spacecraft etc.

May be of all materials types – relatively expensive.

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Class Of Materials: Categories & Example

S M A R T M AT E R I A L S

• Grou