Monsoon diseases

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Describes the common diseases during rainy season. This is meant for the comon man

Text of Monsoon diseases

  • 1. Dr. M. R. Ravi

2. Dr. M. R. RaviDengue feverDengue fever is an infectioustropical disease caused bythe dengue virus. 3. Dr. M. R. RaviSymptoms include fever, headache, muscle pains joint pains, a characteristic skin rash that issimilar to measles. 4. Dr. M. R. Ravi 5. Dr. M. R. RaviIn a small proportion of cases thedisease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagicfever, resulting in bleeding, low levelsof blood platelets and blood plasmaleakage, or into dengue shocksyndrome, where dangerously lowblood pressure occurs. 6. Dr. M. R. Ravi Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquitowithin the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti and A.albopictus. The virus has four different types; infection with onetype usually gives life long immunity to that type, butonly short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increasesthe risk of severe complications. 7. Dr. M. R. RaviControl and prevention As there is no commercially available vaccine,prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and thenumber of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. 8. Chikungunya is a relatively rareform of viral fever ("debilitating non-fatal viral illness." )caused by an alphavirus that isspread by mosquito bites from theAedes aegypti and Aedes albopictusmosquito. 9. Dr. M. R. Ravi 10. Dr. M. R. RaviEPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIADAGENTHOST ENVIRONMENTVECTOR 11. Dr. M. R. RaviAedes aegypti Dr. M. R. Ravi 12. Dr. M. R. RaviAedes albopictus Dr. M. R. Ravi 13. Dr. M. R. RaviMosquito proboscis(scanning electron microscopy) Dr. M. R. Ravi 14. Dr. M. R. RaviMosquito mouth parts(scanning electron microscopy) Dr. M. R. Ravi 15. Dr. M. R. Ravi Dr. M. R. Ravi 16. Dr. M. R. RaviAEDES MOSQUITOES Household container breeders Breeds in clean water In all stored water for drinking, washing and bathing Rainwater collected in unused materials like coconutshells, mud pots, plastic cups, tyres etc 17. BREEDING SOURCES Dr. M. R. Ravi 18. Dr. M. R. Ravi 19. Dr. M. R. Ravi 20. Dr. M. R. Ravi 21. AEDES MOSQUITOES Aggressive day time Bite Major period of activity sunrise and sunset 22. Dr. M. R. RaviENVIRONMENT Population explosion Deforestation Global warming Floods Competition for food fast movement of population 23. Dr. M. R. RaviENVIRONMENT Emergence of world as single village Unplanned urbanization Inadequacy of sanitation, Improper disposal of garbage and pollution ofaquatic systems Development of resistance in vectors toinsecticides 24. Dr. M. R. RaviTRANSMISSION This virus is transmitted only by mosquitoes The mosquito picks up the virus from an infectedperson during the viraemic period within fivedays from the day of starting of symptoms An infected mosquito will remain infected all itslife span and can transmit the virus each time itbites An infected person cannot spread the infectiondirectly to other persons 25. Dr. M. R. RaviSYMPTOMS Fever Which Can Reach 39 C, (102.2 F) Petechial or Maculopapular Rash UsuallyInvolving the Limbs and Trunk Arthralgia or Arthritis Affecting MultipleJoints Which Can Be Debilitating. Headache, Conjunctival Injection andSlight Photophobia. 26. DIAGNOSISThe diagnostic tests include detection ofantigens or antibodies in the blood, using ELISA (or EIA - enzyme immunoassay) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 27. Dr. M. R. RaviDIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS DENGUE WEST NILE FEVER ONYONG NYANG FEVER 28. Dr. M. R. RaviCOMPLICATIONS Symptoms are generally self-limiting and lastfor 110 days. Arthralgia (joint pain) may persist for months oryears. In some patients, minor hemorrhagic signs such asepistaxis or gingivorrhagia have also beendescribed 29. Dr. M. R. RaviIS THERE ANY EFFECTIVETREATMENT ? There is no active treatment against chikv Presently treatment is purely symptomatic -supportive care and rest and nutrition Analgesics, antipyretics and fluid supplementationare important aspects in managing this infection. 30. Dr. M. R. RaviTREATMENTSelf-limiting and WillResolve With Time.No Specific Treatment forChikungunya. Supportive or PalliativeMedical Care With Anti-inflammatories 31. Dr. M. R. RaviTREATMENTVaccine Trials WereCarried Out in 2000, theProject Was Discontinuedand There Is No VaccineCurrently Available.Supportive care with restis indicated during theacute joint symptoms. 32. Dr. M. R. RaviTREATMENTMovement and mild exercisetend to improve stiffness andmorning arthralgia, but heavyexercise may exacerbaterheumatic symptoms. aspirin and nonsteroidalantiinflammatory drugs,chloroquine phosphate (250mg/day) has given promisingresults. 33. Dr. M. R. RaviSigns and symptoms Typically, people infected with dengue virus areasymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms suchas an uncomplicated fever. Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a smallproportion it is life-threatening. 34. Dr. M. R. RaviSigns and symptoms The incubation period (time between exposure andonset of symptoms) ranges from 314 days, but mostoften it is 47 days. Children often experience symptoms similar to thoseof the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting anddiarrhea) and have a greater risk of severecomplications, though initial symptoms are generallymild but include high fever. 35. Dr. M. R. Ravi Dr. M. R. Ravi 36. Dr. M. R. RaviCourse of Dengue illness Dr. M. R. Ravi 37. Dr. M. R. RaviPrevention There are no approved vaccines for the dengue virus.Prevention thus depends on control of and protectionfrom the bites of the mosquito that transmits it. 38. Dr. M. R. RaviPrevention The World Health Organization recommends anIntegrated Vector Control program consisting of fiveelements: (1) Advocacy, social mobilization and legislation toensure that public health bodies and communities arestrengthened, (2) collaboration between the health and other sectors(public and private), 39. Dr. M. R. RaviPrevention (3) an integrated approach to disease control tomaximize use of resources, (4) evidence-based decision making to ensure anyinterventions are targeted appropriately and (5) capacity-building to ensure an adequate responseto the local situation. 40. Dr. M. R. RaviControl The primary method of controlling A. aegypti is byeliminating its habitats. This is done by emptying containers of water or byadding insecticides or biological control agents tothese areas, although spraying with organophosphateor pyrethroid insecticides is not thought to beeffective. 41. Dr. M. R. RaviControl Reducing open collections of water throughenvironmental modification is the preferred methodof control, given the concerns of negative health effectfrom insecticides and greater logistical difficulties withcontrol agents. People can prevent mosquito bites by wearingpermethroid impregnated clothing that fully coversthe skin, using treated mosquito netting while resting,and/or the application of insect repellent. 42. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhea Diarrhea (AmE) (or diarrhoea) (BrE) is the conditionof having three or more loose or liquid bowelmovements per day. The most common cause isgastroenteritis. 43. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhoeal diseaseKey factsDiarrhoeal disease is the secondleading cause of death in childrenunder five years old. It is bothpreventable and treatable.Each year diarrhoea kills around 760000 children under five. 44. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhoeal disease Key factsA significant proportion ofdiarrhoeal disease can beprevented through safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation andhygiene. 45. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhoeal disease Key factsGlobally, there are nearly 1.7 billioncases of diarrhoeal disease every year.Diarrhoea is a leading cause ofmalnutrition in children under fiveyears old. 46. Dr. M. R. Ravi Dehydration The most severe threat posed by diarrhoea isdehydration. During a diarrhoeal episode, water andelectrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium andbicarbonate) are lost through liquid stools, vomit,sweat, urine and breathing. Dehydration occurs whenthese losses are not replaced. 47. Dr. M. R. Ravi The degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three. Early dehydration no signs or symptoms. Moderate dehydration: thirst restless or irritable behaviour decreased skin elasticity sunken eyes 48. Dr. M. R. Ravi Dehydration Severe dehydration: symptoms become more severe shock, with diminished consciousness, lack of urineoutput, cool, moist extremities, a rapid and feeble pulse,low or undetectable blood pressure, and pale skin. Death can follow severe dehydration if body fluids andelectrolytes are not replenished, either through the useof oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution, or through anintravenous drip. 49. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhoea Causes Infection: Diarrhoea is a symptom of infectionscaused by a host of bacterial, viral and parasiticorganisms, most of which are spread by faeces-contaminated water. Infection is more common whenthere is a shortage of adequate sanitation and hygieneand safe water for drinking, cooking and cleaning.Rotavirus andEscherichia coli are the two mostcommon etiological agents of diarrhoea in developingcountries. 50. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhea Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modestamounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment ofchoice and have been estimated to have saved 50million children in the past 25 years. In cases whereORS is not available, homemade solutions are oftenused. 51. Dr. M. R. RaviDiarrhea It is a common cause of death in developing countriesand the second most common cause of infant deathsworldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can causedehydration and electrolyte disturbances such aspotassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1million deaths in people aged 5 and over and 1.5million deaths in children under the age of 5. 52. Dr. M. R. Ravi There are many causes of infectious diarrhea, whichinclude viruses, bacteria and parasites. Norovirus isthe most common cause of viral diarrh