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WELCOME TO NARRATIVE DESIGN &VISUAL STYLE IN VIDEO GAMES A presentation by Altug Isigan METU Informatics Institute GATE511 December 29 2010

Narrative Design and Audio-Visual Style in Video Games

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  1. 1. WELCOME TO NARRATIVE DESIGN&VISUAL STYLEIN VIDEO GAMES A presentationb y Altug Isigan METU Informatics Institute GATE511 December 29 2010
  2. 2. About Me
    • Background
    • Ankara . Faculty of Communication; BA, MA, PhD
    • Scriptwriter, game designer, academic
    • Teaching a game design class since 2007 (with focus on board game design)
    • Credentials
    • IGDA Game Design SIG ; founding member
    • Game Design Aspect of the Month ; editor
    • Global Game Jam Famagusta; organizator
  3. 3. A few pics: Protoypes forSaviors
  4. 4. Pics, continued:Global Game Jam
  5. 5. Pics, continued:Game Design Class
  6. 6.
    • Lets get to the meat of things, right? ;)
    Enough about me...
  7. 7. Before we start:
    • Always ask for the meaning of words that you arent familiar withtheres a lot of terminology in here, so dont be a shy engineer! ;)
    • If you have questions, write them downWere going to have a Q&A session at the end of the presentation, and you can ask them there ;)
  8. 8. UNIT 1:APPROACHNG GAMESAS NARRATVES
  9. 9. The Ludology-Narratology Debate
    • Ludologist : Someone who believes games should be studied as games
    • Narratologist : Someone who studies narratives and believes that games too, can be studied as narratives
    • Around the year 2000, when a growing number of academics started to study video games, a huge debate broke out:Should games be studied as narratives? Should they be studied by narratologists? A group of game scholars tended to be against narratology and narratologists.They were labelledLudologists.
    • The Ludology-Narratology debate reaches its peak when a group of Ludologists launched the online journalGame Studiesand criticised Narratology as being insufficient& invasive
  10. 10. The Ludology-Narratology Debate
    • Ludologists claim that games arent stories because...
    • Stories arelinear , games arenon-linear
    • Readers arepassive , gamers areactive
    • Stories are recounts of what happened in thepast , games happennow they have no discourse time, only play time
    • Hence, they conclude thatwe dont need Narratologyto study games,because games are something entirely different !
  11. 11. Approaching Video Games as Narratives
    • But can we approach games still as narratives?
    • My answer is:YES!
    • Here are my reasons :
    • Video games arefictional worlds . In order to come into existence,these worlds must benarratedby something/someoneWithoutnarrationwe wouldnt know they exist.We also wouldnt know what we are doing in this fictional world.
    • Video games are a process ofmediation : Hence theres amediumthat brings me news from a world that I wouldnt be able to interface with otherwise.The medium narrates my actions to the game world, and the happenings in the game world to me.
  12. 12. Approaching Video Games as Narratives
    • By the way: MediationandNarrationtakes place even in non-digital games ;)
    • Think of theDungeon Master(DM) in a typical FRP Session:
    • The DM is amedium : He brings me news from a world that I cannot access otherwise
    • The DMnarratesthe events and happenings in the fictional world so that I can position myself and consider my situation.He also narrates the outcome of my very own actions.As a player, I depend on the DMs narration in order to orientate myself and make decisions.
    • The Video Game is basically a digitalized DM, amedium, that narrates my actions and the fictional game world
    • In short, Mediation and Narration are inescapable!
  13. 13. Approaching Video Games as Narratives
    • A few words on the passive reader notion:
    • Contructivist theories , andReader-Response theoryhave found out thata reader is never passive , butactively involved in the construction of the meaning of the text This cancels out Ludologys claim that readers are passiveA reader is pretty much lika a player, only his input is invisible
    • Any text ,including video games , works only with the active participation of the reader , be it by articulating letters in his mind or by hitting frantically on a keyboard
    • Since a narrative * is * a reciprocal relation between text and reader that aims at (or results in) signification,the logical conclusion is that any text (written, audial, visual or tactile) must solicit the (interpretative or physical) actions that it wants its readers to carry outIts only that in games the readers actions are often more visible than those of book readers.Hence, reading and interpretation lie at the heart of playing.
  14. 14. Approaching Video Games as Narratives
    • Reading a game text to solicit action:Pong
    • Game StartThe white dot comes at you
    • If you fail to bounce it back0-1!
    • The player interpretes this sequence that she must bounce the ball back to avoid conceeding a goalThe game text has solicited at least one of the actions that it wants the player to carry out
    • The more such actions the text solicits, the more it enables the player to constructs the narrative, which is To win the game,score more than you conceedNow aconflicthas been established, the action hastelos,and events are connected in terms ofcausalityandchrono-logy
    • This is the ludic way of narration; all communicated through the game medium.
    The highly abstracted world ofPong :a fictional universenarratedthrough amedium !
  15. 15. The Video Game As Open Work
    • Narratives have been described as linear by LudologistsThis is to say that they cant be changed once the writer is finished with his work.There is one single storyline that we will experience each time we traverse the narrative The medium and genre Ludologists think of here are books and novels.
    • However,Non-Linearityisnt a new concept to literature
    • Great examples for this are the permutational novels of theOulipomovement George Perec ,Raymond Queneuetc
    • There is also a wealth of create your own story -type of books
    • These gave readers a lot of options to interprete/manipulate the text, not just in terms of interpretation, but also plot construction.
    • Hence the assumption of Ludologists that narratives are linear by nature is wrong.
  16. 16. The Video Game As Open Work
    • But it took some time until in narratology someone came up with a theory of non-linear narrativesIn 1962,Umberto Ecopublishes his bookThe Open Workand speaks about narratives that come to life the moment the reader interferes with them .
    • Eco calls narratives that develop into various directions based on the decisions made by readers open works .The reader can decide on the content, structure or style of the narrative.The reader isnt any longer bound to a single way of traversing the narrative presented to him.
    • IOW, the author of the open work gives the readera narrative sandboxto play with and doesnt force onto the reader a single way to experience them.
    • This gives us a very strong basis to theorize video games from within narratology because when it comes to video games, we basically deal with digitalized narratives that ask for reader input on a variety of narrative layers in order to come to life and be able to progress.
  17. 17. The Video Game As Open Work
    • Another important figure in narratology isClaude Bremond .
    • He analyzed narratives based ondecision nodesand diagrammed them aslogical circuitsin which the characters need to make theright decisionsin order the story to proceed to the ending that was foreseen by its author.
    Diagram taken from ludology.org
  18. 18. The Video Game As Open Work
    • In theory, a character in a story could decide to do whats not good for the story, i.e. he could decide at a decision node to do what brings the story to an unwanted end.Imagine a detective saying in the middle of a story Im no longer interested in solving this puzzle, good bye!
    • Hence, whenever the character arrives at a decision node, there exists a risk for the story to come to an end.Therefore, Bremond calls every decision node (or switch) in the logical circuit of the narrative an area of risk .
    • However this is apotentialriskThe author will make sure thatthe conditions in the fictional world make the characters chose whats good for the storyThe character choses to do what the author wants him to do, but it feels like he has chosen it by his own free will in response to the conditions surrounding him.This brings us to the notion ofFate!
    • Theillusion of fateis achieved by using a principle in dramaturgy calledneccessity A good writer will make it look like it was fate, and not his power as the author of the story, that made the character chose whats good for the story.
  19. 19. The Video Game As Open Work
    • So what happens to the areas of risk when it comes to games?
    • They are no longer potential risks but now bear areal risk !
    • Because ultimately, as much as the author makes sure that necessity is in its place,a player can always decide not to do what was expected from him ! Its now the reader/player who has the final word.
    • This makes it a really difficult task for the game designer to make sure that the player does whats good for the game.
  20. 20. The Video Game As Open Work
    • We can identify at least two challenges for the author of the open work (or game designer):
    • Tomaintain necessityin a free-to-roam worldillusion of fate
    • Tomaintain increasing tensionof the storylines that emerge based on the players decisionslogical coherence & unity during story progress
    • The latter is an important problem in narrative design, because not every decision that the player makes necessarily carries the plot on higher levels.
    • The most important two dramaturgic risks that the designer faces here are:
    • stagnation(the game lacks a feeling of progress); and
    • deviation(the game maintains a feeling of progress, but one that feels like it leads away from whats central to the story, and that causes confusion about the goal of the game) .
    • Both situations often translate into the most dangerous thing for games:boredom .
  21. 21. The Video Game As Open Work
    • An additional challenge to the game narrative designer is the need to introduce theplayer vocabulary the means and ends that the player makes use of to exist and act in the game world.
    • In a video game,introducing game controlsand helping the player to feel convenient using them is an elementary part ofexposure .In games it is often presented in the form ofTutorialsorCutscenesrather than being gradually revealed in a process of dramatizationHowever, both methods are under dispute
    • The dilemma here is: As a narrative designer you want to introduce the problem and turn it into a conflict as soon as possible.Thats whyteasersare popular in film
    • But as a game designer, you know you cant send the player into the conflict before you havent made sure hell get along fine with the player vocabulary.
    • Introducing the player vocabulary without slowing down the build-up of the story is a very difficult task and can tell the master game (or narrative) designer from the apprentice.
  22. 22. UNIT 2:INTERACTION ASNARRATIVE ARTICULATION
  23. 23. Narrative Layers
    • A narrative model of narratologistRoland Barthesidentifiesfour narrative layersthat are in a vertical relationships:
    • According to the model,Eventsgain their meaning on theStory Persons(or Actants) layer; Story persons gain their meaning on theNarrationlayer; and ultimately the Narration gains its meaning through theNarrative Situationit is placed within.
  24. 24. Narrative Layers
    • Events(or F unctions ):
    • A llactionsthat are carried out to initiate, continue and terminate a logically connected sequence
    • A n example fromDiablo :
    • Diablo is on attack Defend yourself Diablo dead
    • The Eventslayer implies that characters in a storyare in a constant process of decision-making .
  25. 25. Narrative Layers
    • Story persons(or A ctants ):
    • T hefictional beingswho carry out the actions whicharticulate asevents. Often they'll signify something larger than theirparti c ular presence and connect /equal to a "will".
    • Diabloexample: All monsters in the game are actants or story persons. But ultimately theyarticulate undera narrative "force"that we canidentify as "Diablo Thats the will of the antagonist in the story
  26. 26. Narrative Layers
    • Storytelling(or N arration ):
    • the various techniques and methods through which the events and story persons to which they belong to are presented to the player.
    • Examples fromDiablo :
    • Exposure of information through entering dialogues with the people in town;
    • gothic iconography and low gamma to foster mood and to communicate genre,
    • isometric view,
    • player's in-game presence visually divided into avatar and cursor etc
  27. 27. Narrative Layers
    • Narrative Situation :
    • the broader rules and conventions that shape the way in whichgames(game narratives)are consumed.
    • This is not really part of the narrative itself, but rathermeans the circumstancesandcultural codesthat allowthe game narrative to be perceived and consumed as such .
  28. 28. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • In Video Games,game controls and interfacesenable us to modify these layers and manipulate the development and outcome of the narrative.
    • But we shouldnt forget that the game narrative does the same to us, as we are playing.
    • Interactionis a reciprocal process between text and readerThe influencing is mutual
  29. 29. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • Influencing the Events Layer :
    • Through input,playersinfluence how a row of Events turn sout
    • Gameplay built around influencing the Events layer has beenthe dominant mode ofinteraction for many decades, exemplified right from the beginning through gamessuch as Spacewar! ,Pong, Asteroids,Galaxian ,Centipede, Pac-Man, Donkey Kong, Zaxxon
    • Thisis the archetype of video game interactivityand itremains until today fundamentalto any game .
  30. 30. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • Influencing theStory PersonsLayer:
    • Over time ,game designers explore dthe possibilities of the other layers of narrative.
    • MUDs and genres such as RPGs and Simulations put emphasis on a variety of interactions that had as their subjects story persons and other game world existents:
    • Players could modify or remove existing characters,
    • create characters from scratch, change their looks, traits and behaviors.
    • Othergames allowed us to change the environment,
    • to add, modify or remove objects, to modify terrain etc.
    • Civilization,The Sims , Diablo, The Sims, Rollercoaster Tycoon, Railroad Tycoon, X-Com Apocalypse, Football Managerare games that come in mind.
  31. 31. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • Influencing the Narration Layer:
    • M ost modern gamesenable players tomodif ythe layer of Narration
    • We can now
    • modify the camera angle or behavior,
    • switch between POVs,
    • chose the music and gamma (ambience) that we want toset the tone ofthe game world,
    • alter the frequency of in-game commentary,
    • switch on or off replays etc etc etc...
    • Pro Evolution Soccer, Need for Speed, Medal of Honorare just a few examples that come in mind.
  32. 32. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • Influencing the Narrative Situation:
    • This is a layer that is not part of the narrative itself, but one that is related to our awareness that we are dealing with a narrative
    • It includes decisions like where to play, how to feel most convenient while playingRemember Italo Calvinos first chapter inIf in a Winters Night a Traveller...
    • Defining thegame settingsfrom theoptions menu , or chosing aplay modeare also part of this layer
    • Finally, the way the game developer influences our notion of what a game and playing is, frames all this. Project Natal:You are the Controller
  33. 33. Manipulating Narrative Layers
    • The distinction between these layers is analytical!
    • During gameplay, a decision might manipulate various layers at the same time!Narrative layers form a structure and its elements are always related!
    • Even if we cant interact with some of them, all layers are always present
    Some Important Reminders!
  34. 34. Interaction as Narrative Articulation
    • Narrative Articulation Through Interaction :
    • Our interferences on the various narrative layers during game play would result in an articulation of the narrative.
    • It is the design of game controls and interfaces that define the ways in which our interactions result in such narrative articulation:
    • Some games would use complex combination of input devices, others would design the whole system of articulation around a single input device.
    • A very good example for narrative articulation built around a single input device is the use of the cursor inDiablo .
  35. 35. Interaction as Narrative Articulation
  36. 36.
    • Ill see you in 10 minutes ;)
    COFFEE BREAK!
  37. 37. UNIT 3:GAME CONTROLS AS CONSTRANTS ON VSUAL STYLE
  38. 38. Controls versus Sequence Motion
    • A specific problem to game design is to balance game controls and visual variety :
    • The question that game designers are confronted with here is how to deal withsequence motionthe subject ofmontage/editingin cinema
    • the most popular way to create sequence motion is thecut Other prominent methods are thedissolve , thefade , thewipeetc...
    • But why is that a problem in video games?
  39. 39. Controls versus Sequence Motion
    • The player has a twofold role in a game :
    • He is both PlayerandSpectator
    • As a player he wants control over his actions
    • As a spectator he wants visual variety and spectacle
    • But thats harder to achieve than one might think...
  40. 40. Controls versus Sequence Motion
    • Consider this example :
    • Psycho(Alfred Hitchcock);
    • famous shower scene
    • [Fragment]
  41. 41. Controls versus Sequence Motion
    • This is a phantastic example of sequence motionOver 70 cinematic cuts in around 50 seconds.
    • As a side note: In this scene we never really see the lady being cut ;)
  42. 42. Controls versus Sequence Motion
    • Now: what if I ask you to make this scene a... game?
  43. 43. Motion Types
    • A way to better understand the problem is to approach games in terms of theMotion Typesthat they stick with
    • We can identify three motion types in audio-visual communciation:
    • Primary Motion
    • Secondary Motion
    • Tertiary Motion
  44. 44. Motion Types Primary motionrefers to object movement. It can be best exemplified by objects or persons moving within, or, in an out of the borders of a static frame. Agreat number of games are built on primary motion. Exampleswith static frames are Tetris ,Centipede , Space Invaders , Pac-Man There is hardly a game that doesnt have primary motion. Primary motion within a static frameanswers the players need forsurveillance
  45. 45. Motion Types Secondarymotion denotes camera and/or opticalmovement. The frame is dynamic and the camera performs a variety of moves like travelling, panning or zooming Often such movement will go together with types of primary motion. All games that use a moving camera can be given as examples:Zaxxon Secondary motion createsdepthand is easy tocope with as long as there isvector consistency
  46. 46. Motion Types
    • Tertiary Motion?
    • Modern cinema and some of its major theories are in defense of montage, that is, tertiary motion types like the cut.
    • This is where visual narration in modern games differs significantly from that of cinema .Game designers must consider carefully before they ever think of using tertiary motion
    • This is due totertiary motion types often being in conflict with the players need for control over her actions
  47. 47. Motion Types
    • In terms of visual narration (or, the visual construction of screen events), many video games build their event-dense play sequences around primary and secondary motion types .
    • Alot of games still make use of tertiary motion, but rarely ever does it happen thatit is used in moments where control is more important than visual variety . In most cases i t would be regarded as a design flawto sacrifice controls over spectacle during actual gameplay
    • Need For Speed Car crash & Jumping scenes
  48. 48. The Long Take
    • The Importance of the Long Take in Video Games
    • In contrast to cinema, where shot variation and editing plays an important role in theconstruction of the screen event , many video game genres can be described as being the genres of thelong take .
    • We travel through the worlds of these games inone long, uncutcam display , and rarely ever does it happen that we witness a cut or any other type of montageduring sequences of high event density
  49. 49. The Long Take
  50. 50. The Long Take
    • Design Constraints on Visual Style and Narrative Design Caused by the Long Take:
    • If during actual gameplay we are mostly limited to the long take and need to avoid tertiary motion...
    • How can we still create visual versatility, and foster rhythm and pace during gameplay?
    • What stylistic options do we have for punctuation and transition along the visual continuum of the long take?
    • We will now deal with design solutions for these problems
  51. 51. UNIT 4:DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR GAMES BASED ON LONG TAKES
  52. 52. Design Solutions
    • Active and Anticipatory Camera:
    • C hange in the parametres of the continuous camera movement that delineates events (or scenes), that creates pauses, and that establishes rhyth m
    • The camera will often function in a suggestive way, having an impact on our decision to move into this or that direction
    • God of War
    • Tekken
    • Full Spectrum Warrior
  53. 53. Design Solutions
    • Shot Scale &Angle; Figure-Ground Relations
    • The camera in God of War makes use of switches in scale and angle during its continuous movement.
    • Without breaking the visual continuum,
    • it backs off to give a birdsview of the approaching war scene ;
    • it accelerates and drags the player behind to anticipate danger/action ;
    • it slows down and allows the player to move freely to signify a relatively safe section ;
    • it up-closes and re-adjusts to the best scale and angle during the presentation of battle action
    • The switch in scale and anglealso polish esand bring sto the foreground the ongoing primary motion in order to enhance spectacle and experience intensity.This creates rhythm through bringing into focus one type of action over anotherFocus switches between figure and ground
  54. 54. Design Solutions
    • Multiple Frames & Graphication Devices
    • Many games use multiple frames to narrate an event from multiple scales &angles, or to present more than one of its aspects at a time .
    • Graphication Devices like HUDs are other ways of exposure
    • Multiple frames & Graphication Devices can be used to maintain
    • Orientation& Surveillancemini maps inAoE , mini-windows inRollercoaster Tycoon , the rearviewmirror inNFS
    • To present details that otherwise would require sequence motion to be squeezed in and would therefore be in conflict with game control needsthe mini-frame with the beaten faces inInternational Karate
    • Elements of a HUDs display are a way to expose crucial information when it is neededThe speedometer inNFS , the fatigue bar inTekken
  55. 55. Design Solutions
    • Special Effects/Visualized Status Indicators
    • In many FPS games we wouldnt notice that were hit by the enemys bullet if the screen wouldnt turn to red each time were getting hit
    • If an enemy in RoN uses an A-bomb, the screen would screen would turn completely white from the blinding light of the explosion, no matter which section of the map is being displayed at that moment.
    • The screen displays light rays due to our increased speed when we use a Nitro-pack in Need for Speed.
    • The bullets split the air and cause shock-waves when we fire our gun in Max Payne
    • Etc etc etc
  56. 56. Design Solutions
    • Object Movement
    • Even in games with a static frame, where not only tertiary, but also secondary motion is out of the question, object movementcan be usedchange the pace andrhythm in the game .
    • I nCentipede , the experience density increases when a spider comes along. t he appearance of an additional moving object increases event density.In addition,the spider moves faster than all other objects andgets very close at us (no need to mention that a collision with it kills us immediately). Hence we feel an increase in pace whenaspiderappears. Once it has left the screen, however,we feel that we have returned to normal game pace. Hence rhythm is created.
    • Pac-Man : In those section in which the roles are reversed and we can be a ghostbuster for a few seconds, we feel increased game pace. The ghosts move slow now (which feels like we've become faster) and there is limited time to catch them and getthe reward. But soon it's us again who'll be the hunted and the pace will normalize. The switch between hunter and hunted roles creates rhythm.
  57. 57. Design Solutions
    • Color and Lighting
    • Other visual parametres such as color and lighting can be used to signify scene delineation.
    • Section with low gamma are followed by bright sections,
    • Sections withcold colors are followed by warm colors,
    • etc
    • These wouldestablish a feel of rhythm,andcreate visual delineation of scenesand sequences .
  58. 58. Design Solutions
    • Volume, Shape, Form, Texture
    • V olume, form and shape are other important factors thatespeciallyarchitecture draws attention to
    • For example i n racing games, delineation of sequences is partly achieved through the proportion of negative volumes to positive volumes:
    • The varying textures of the landscape create rhythm: Need for Speed :the highway section, followed by the Chinatown section, followed by the claustrophobic tunnel section,followed bythe traffic-plagued downtown section that we have to rush through before we reach the finish.
    • S witching between a curvy sequence and a long straight will have an impact on pacing and rhythm.
  59. 59. Design Solutions
    • The Tactile Dimension
    • An often ignored way of pacing and rhythm in video games is the tactile dimension of the fictional universe. This is a very important aspect in architectural design.
    • Change in the texture and feel of the space that we walk through has an impact on our perception and mood. A sequence of various tactile qualities will bring a series of changing moods with it and that can be used for pacing and rhythm.
    • For instance the way our avatar slows down or accelerates while climbing or walking down a slope, while performing a rather unus u al move like strafing, or while wading through water or mud, all these are of a tactile nature. Collin McRae Rally
    • Our avatar would be still presented to us through secondary motion, but despite the contin u ous longtake that follows our actions, we would perceive a transition from one area to another, which would bring variation to the experience we have.
  60. 60. Design Solutions
    • Sound and Ambience
    • Ambience is another issue that is very important.
    • Transition from
    • one set of natural sounds to another ;
    • switching between noisy and silent sequences ;
    • the way that our own noise sounds due to change in the tactile or acoustic dimension of the environment .
    • A ll these can be used to establish a feeling of variation and rhythm along the long shot. Railroad Tycoon 2
  61. 61. Design Solutions
    • Articulation of Event Chains
    • As we move through a level, we will witness how relatively safeand relativelydangerous sections keep replacing each other. The way in which their order is set up, is another important way to pace a level and create rhythm.
    • InDiablo , therear e sections in which enemies are always placed within each others line-of-sight,hencewe areforced into a killing spree because each new kill already triggers another monster coming at us.
    • T he designers make sure that after such a killing spree we have a pause.
    • The next killing spree arrangementispositioned a bit farther and wait sfor usto tap into it and trigger the new action section.
    • Inbetween the killing sprees,we would re-assess our situation, re-arrange our inventory and make plans on what tactic or strategy to adopt next.
    • Since all this would be presented along asingle uncut shot, we would experience a feel of delineation that is being created without the use of tertiary motion.
  62. 62. Design Solutions
    • Primary Motion-Secondary Motion Cycles
    • In a lot of games, we witness constant switching between object motion and camera motion as the long shot unfolds.
    • This works in the following way: As we walk through safe sections, secondary motion rules. We walk, and the camera moves with us. Then, as we spot the enemy and engage with it, it is rather object movement that dominates the scene.
    • Often the density of the attack means were getting stuck at that point and can only move on when the threat is eliminated, hence the camera wouldnt move, but a lot of object motion would dominate the scene.
    • An example for this isDiablowhere during the walkthrough of a level the rhythmic structure consists of a constant switching between exploration/spotting (secondary motion) and ambush (primary motion): the monster attack nails us to a certain spot on the map and hence the camera seems to be locked on there; then, after weve killed the attackers and keep moving, the camera again starts to travel with us.
    • Despite no use of tertiary motion, the result is controlled change in pace, which is just another name for rhythm.
  63. 63.
    • GAME OVER
    • Ok folks, thats it!
    • (But remember: were still having a Q&A Session)
  64. 64.
    • Another10 minutes for you ;)
    COFFEE BREAK!
  65. 65. CLOSNG SESSON
  66. 66. SUMMARY
    • What have we learned today?
    • In regard to Narrative Design
    • Video Games can be studied as narratives, in particular as Open Works
    • A video game is a narrative that opens all four basic narrative layers to player interaction
    • One of the major functions of interaction is to articulate narrative layers in order to bring a games story into existence
    • In regard to Visual Style
    • Tertiary motion is often in conflict with the players game control requirements.
    • Most games stick with primary and secondary motion, and are built around the Long Take as a major visual stylistic device
    • There exists a broad palette of stylistic devices to pace and give rhytm in visual narration that is built around the Long Take
  67. 67. FINAL WORDS
    • Thanks for Listening!
    • It was a pleasure to meet you people!
    • Hope to see you another time!
  68. 68. CONTACT INFO
    • Altug Isigan
    • Eastern Mediterranean University
    • Faculty of Communication and Media Studies
    • Department of Radio-TV-Film&Journalism
    • Gazimagusa TRNC
    • Send an e-mail to:
    • [email_address]
  69. 69. SOME USEFUL LINKS
    • The Ludosphere my blog on games:
    • http://altugi.wordpress.com
    • IGDA Game Design SIG official blog:
    • http://gdsig.wordpress.com
    • Game Design Aspect of the Month useful articles:
    • http://gamedesignaspect.blogspot.com
    • Gamasutra the #1 portal for game developers:
    • http://www.gamasutra.com
    • Kafa Ayar quality turkish game blog:
    • http://kafayari.wordpress.com
  70. 70. QUESTON & ANSWER SESSON 30 mins... gotta catch a plane!