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Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games Vinayak Ravi U6561524 Submitted on 25 th October 2019 Report submitted for COMP6470 Special Topics in Computing Project Supervised by Dr. Penny Kyburz

Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games€¦ · Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games Abstract Narrative-driven videogames have developed over the past decade and developers

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  • Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Vinayak Ravi U6561524

    Submitted on 25th October 2019

    Report submitted for COMP6470 Special Topics in Computing

    Project Supervised by Dr. Penny Kyburz

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    Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Student ID

    For group assignments,

    list each student’s ID

    U6561524

    Course Code COMP 6470

    Course Name Special Topics in Computing

    Assignment number Research Report

    Assignment Topic Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Lecturer/convenor Professor Weifa Liang

    Tutor/supervisor Dr. Penny Kyburz

    Examiner Dr. Charles Martin

    Word count 8548 Due Date 25/10/2019

    Date Submitted 25/10/2019 Extension Granted

    I declare that this work:

    • upholds the principles of academic integrity, as defined in the ANU Policy: Code of Practice for Student Academic Integrity;

    • is original, except where collaboration (for example group work) has been authorised in writing by the course convener in the course outline and/or Wattle site;

    • is produced for the purposes of this assessment task and has not been submitted for assessment in any other context, except where authorised in writing by the course convener;

    • gives appropriate acknowledgement of the ideas, scholarship and intellectual property of others insofar as these have been used;

    • in no part involves copying, cheating, collusion, fabrication, plagiarism or recycling.

    C O M P 6 4 7 0 R E S E A R C H

    R E P O R T C O V E R S H E E T

    ANU College of

    Engineering and Computer Science

    Australian National University

    Canberra ACT 0200 Australia

    www.anu.edu.au

    +61 2 6125 5254

    https://hkxprd0610.outlook.com/owa/redir.aspx?C=pkUS4AqeVkC0OHXUsRYzk8JcJE65y9AI4r3Mqfll_bLO9DXo_dFgmbuC6N5TOcnRwCb-AmVT460.&URL=https%3a%2f%2fpolicies.anu.edu.au%2fppl%2fdocument%2fANUP_000392https://hkxprd0610.outlook.com/owa/redir.aspx?C=pkUS4AqeVkC0OHXUsRYzk8JcJE65y9AI4r3Mqfll_bLO9DXo_dFgmbuC6N5TOcnRwCb-AmVT460.&URL=https%3a%2f%2fpolicies.anu.edu.au%2fppl%2fdocument%2fANUP_000392

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    Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Abstract

    Narrative-driven videogames have developed over the past decade and developers have

    been trying to attain proper balance between story and interactivity. Not minimizing this gap, i.e.

    having too much of narrative or gameplay in one another, will cause disruption to the flow of the

    game. Hence, this research focuses on studying narrative devices (dialogues, cutscenes) and

    gameplay devices (Rules, goals, mechanics) in Uncharted 4 and learning its impact on one another.

    Further, this research focuses on learning how immersion occurs by properly correlating each

    factor with the narrative fictive-world, enabling the players to feel as being part of the character’s

    story.

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    Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Table of Contents

    Abstract .............................................................................................................................. 3

    1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6

    2.Literature Review......................................................................................................... 6

    2.1 Understanding Videogames .................................................................................. 7

    2.2 Narrative Structure ................................................................................................ 7

    2.3 Gameplay Structure ............................................................................................ 10

    2.4 Immersion in Games ........................................................................................... 12

    2.5 Achieving balance between story and gameplay ................................................ 13

    3. Methodology ................................................................................................................. 13

    3.1 Case-Study .......................................................................................................... 14

    3.2 Formal Analysis .................................................................................................. 14

    3.3 Close Reading ..................................................................................................... 15

    4. Narrative and Gameplay Analysis on Uncharted 4 ....................................................... 16

    4.1. Case Study on Uncharted 4 (Chapter 11: Hidden in Plain Sight) .......................... 17

    4.2. Narrative in Uncharted 4 - chapter 11 .................................................................... 22

    4.2.1. Narrative Architecture used in the game ......................................................... 22

    4.2.2. Narrative Devices............................................................................................ 27

    4.3. Gameplay Devices ................................................................................................. 30

    4.3.1 Rules .................................................................................................................... 30

    4.3.1 Goals .................................................................................................................... 32

    4.3.1 Game Mechanics .................................................................................................. 33

    5. Emergent analysis of the artefacts in minimizing Ludo-narrative dissonance ............. 34

    6. Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 38

    References ........................................................................................................................ 40

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    Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    Table of Figures

    Figure 1: String of Pearls narrative model [10] .............................................................................. 8

    Figure 2: 3rd person point of view [15] ........................................................................................ 10

    Figure 3: Game mechanic's chain reaction [17] .............................................................................11

    Figure 4: Achieving immersion in Videogames [21] .................................................................... 12

    Figure 5: Navigating through the market [35] .............................................................................. 17

    Figure 6: Nate encounters clock tower puzzle [35] ...................................................................... 18

    Figure 7: Journal guiding Nate in solving the clock tower puzzle [35] ........................................ 18

    Figure 8: Founder wheel's mechanism [35] .................................................................................. 19

    Figure 9: Car chase sequence [36] ................................................................................................ 20

    Figure 10: Manipulatable character during chase sequence -I [36] .............................................. 21

    Figure 11:Manipulatable character during chase sequence -II [36] .............................................. 21

    Figure 12: Narrative Architectural model ..................................................................................... 26

    List of Tables

    Table 1:4-Act structure explained [12] ......................................................................................... 25

    Table 2: narrative devices (artefact description) [11] ................................................................... 29

    Table 3: Rules artefact description [11] ........................................................................................ 32

    Table 4: Goals artefact description [11] ........................................................................................ 33

    Table 5:Emergent narrative architecture artefact .......................................................................... 37

    Table 6: Play-pattern pseudocode artefact .................................................................................... 37

    file:///C:/Users/Vinayak%20ravi/Desktop/Game%20Analyitcs/Uncharted%204/correction/COMP6470_Report_u6561524-PK.docx%23_Toc22918601file:///C:/Users/Vinayak%20ravi/Desktop/Game%20Analyitcs/Uncharted%204/correction/COMP6470_Report_u6561524-PK.docx%23_Toc22918601file:///C:/Users/Vinayak%20ravi/Desktop/Game%20Analyitcs/Uncharted%204/correction/COMP6470_Report_u6561524-PK.docx%23_Toc22918601file:///C:/Users/Vinayak%20ravi/Desktop/Game%20Analyitcs/Uncharted%204/correction/COMP6470_Report_u6561524-PK.docx%23_Toc22918601

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    Game Analytics on Narrative Based Video Games

    1. Introduction

    Video Games are basic feedback systems which with help of visual user-interface helps

    players in interacting with it. It engages one to experience and divulge into new frontiers in an

    interactive fashion. They are primarily made of three elements: (i) Narrative, (ii) Gameplay &

    mechanics and (iii) Goals & objectives. The act of combining these elements, i.e. the story and

    gameplay and other core components, result in an immersive experience to the players. However,

    achieving a perfect mix of this phenomenon is hard and hence, Ludo-narrative dissonance exists.

    This report focusses on establishing a relationship between narrative and gameplay, through a

    player’s perspective, i.e. all the three parameters aren’t referenced as separate individual elements,

    but as a collective one. Subsequently, the primary reason of why narrative was treated second-

    fiddle to all other components is the poor handling of it from various generations, i.e. improper

    deployment of narrative devices (Dialogues, cutscenes) results in slowing of pace and mundane

    representation of the world imagined by the developer. The report uses mixed model (case study,

    formal analysis & close reading) qualitative analysis approach, to analyze on impact of narrative

    and gameplay cohesiveness in Uncharted 4. Results obtained through the analysis deems to have

    an augmenting outcome on the corresponding player, by balancing the polarizing gaming elements,

    rendering emergence.

    2.Literature Review

    The literature review focuses on understanding the researcher’s view on gaming paradigm,

    in terms of narrative architecture as artefacts, and its structure incorporated, also gameplay

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    elements. Additionally, the concept of emergence in terms of level of immersive content depicted

    in combining both the gaming components (narrative and gameplay) is also researched.

    2.1 Understanding Videogames

    The concept of videogames is defined as a pragmatic hindsight towards a player’s personal

    life, by developing rules and logics behind it. Further Murray [1] supports the theory, stating that

    videogames are ‘participatory in-approach’, which allows players to interact with the rules and

    game mechanics framed, thus enabling them to be viewed as artefacts. Additionally, games can be

    referenced to be addressed as ‘systems’, which is necessarily a compilation of elements affecting

    one another, forming a coalescing pattern that is separate from those elements combining it [2].

    Players are viewed to be components which facilitate a sense of interactivity in this macrocosm of

    elements, from which a game is made. Further M.L. Ryan [3] exclaims that, videogames will see

    an upbringing of various complex characters and the players are channeled through their memories,

    emotions, dramas, thereby creating an educational artistic pleasure, through constant advancement

    in visual graphics among various consoles. This suggests that, narrative will engage players in a

    constructive manner, which results in narrative not being treated second to other elements in

    gaming industry. The question where researchers and developers focus are on, how to bridge these

    two resonating elements into a well-tuned functioning emergent device.

    2.2 Narrative Structure

    Narrative structure was primarily related to media and cinema arts, whereas, in recent times

    narrative has been one of the main proponents for gaming industry. Narrative designers take a top-

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    down approach in designing ‘narrative’ for games, likewise, interactivity is brought by bottom-up

    input (choice) from the player. Interactivity involves in balancing the building blocks of time,

    space, characters and events, to pioneer adverse/advantageous outcomes in accordance to the

    scenario designed for each level in the games [3]. Additionally, Majewski [9] proposed four

    narrative architectural models ‘String of Pearls, branching narrative, amusement park, building

    blocks’, which guides the flowline of the plots in the narrative. Further, since Uncharted series

    follows a linear-adaptable storyline, String of Pearls model approach is what connects the

    sequence of events (pearls) by strings (narrative devices), which can be viewed as shown in (Figure

    1)

    Figure 1: String of Pearls narrative model [10]

    Games like Uncharted series provide extensive importance for narrative and hence they

    follow a specific style, such as 3-Act or 4-Act Narrative plot architecture interfacing with the

    specific model, which acts as an anchor for plot/story devices to weigh on. The four-act structure

    follows a specific structure such as [4]:

    • Act One: Setup and complication

    • Act two: Conflict and rising action

    • Act three: Crisis

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    • Act four: Climax

    Narrative writers usually prefer 4-Act structure because of its versatility to handle change in

    the plot. Consequences that arise because of the change created in the plot, enhances the narrative

    and brings up a thrill element, which needs to be handled in accordance to the needed story setting

    for the game.

    Narrative Devices are elements in the narrative structure which helps in interacting the

    plot/story to the player. They act as an illustrator linking the goals, mechanics and the decisions

    made in the game, to the core theme the game is centered on. Narrative is an advocate to the player,

    introducing the gameplay mechanics (rules, goals, in-game mechanics) and the choices/decisions

    embedded in the game. The narrative devices incorporated in the game are split into three parts for

    research purposes namely, Dialogues, Cutscenes, Point-of-View.

    Dialogues are means of interaction for the agents to exchange useful information through

    conversations, thereby sharing emotional connotations between characters, leading to meaningful

    relationships, lucrative strategies, or effective character build-up. Subsequently [5], the father of

    speech act theory ‘J.L. Austin’ exclaims the importance of words, which can be used to either

    ‘describe or to cause action’. Dialogues are integral part of narrative-based videogames like

    ‘Uncharted 4, Last of Us, Witcher series, Assassin’s creed series’ and acts as a binding factor,

    correlating gameplay mechanics and the core idea behind the game’s creation.

    Secondly, Cutscenes act as an important non-playable/ partially-playable live-action sequence

    created in a videogame to create an engaging experience bolstering the plot in that segment or the

    over-arching theme. [6] They also give the players an advent of mission-briefing, story ahead,

    introduction of gameplay mechanic etc., giving insight towards imminent narrative.

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    Thirdly, Point-of-view (3rd person) is the videogame characteristic (graphical perspective)

    allowing the player in visualizing the game world either with a manipulative camera (able to

    view/control the player’s actions with a camera placed over the shoulders/top and behind the

    controlling character). The (Figure 2) shows the ability to view the player’s view action through

    various perspectives, with controllable camera angle, enabling the player to act as both player and

    director [8].

    Figure 2: 3rd person point of view [7]

    2.3 Gameplay Structure

    Gameplay mechanizes the constituent elements which determines the character’s mobility

    characteristics, game-level’s structural design, response/event triggers, game-state dynamics and

    decision responses [10]. Further for the analysis, Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman’s work (Rules

    of Play, 2004) exclaims [11], rules, goals and mechanics to be the primary gameplay components,

    hence these ludic elements were levied and compare with the narrative components.

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    Rules are components in gameplay which associates the in-game behaviors of

    characters/agents and are written in way by the developers such that, players can’t execute

    commands beyond these postulated frameworks. As said in Rules of Play [11], Rules are explicit,

    fixed, binding, repeatable and embodies the formal structure of the games.

    Goals are framed to help garner the player’s interest and create a sense of purpose to the

    narrative. It sets what a player can perform and what are the consequences for the concerned action

    to the narrative [11]. When visualizing it through the narrative’s lens these goals set in each level

    of the games, will create an impact not only on the progress of the game but also, create reflective

    elements carried on to the real world.

    Mechanics are primary elements which brings in the interactivity component, they receive

    physical feedback (by press of a button or analog movements) which is wirelessly and

    electronically transmitted into manipulation of the characters/environment/agents inside the game.

    Further, [10] references gameplay mechanics to be black boxes, where players give inputs and

    react with other elements in the game-level to provide a reaction, outputting a corresponding

    change to the state of the black box, thereby linking it with all other black boxes causing a chain-

    reaction.

    Figure 3: Game mechanic's chain reaction [10]

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    On referring (Figure 3) we understand, games are designed in a fashion to receive player centered

    feedback signals (inputs) engaging them, to output chain of output signals, triggering in- game

    manipulations.

    2.4 Immersion in Games

    Immersion is developed when the player feels engulfed into the constructed narrative and

    gameplay mechanics, while playing the game. Further, Coleridge [12] exclaims that immersion is

    perceptive involvement of the player in the fictive space created. Further, Taylor [13] emphasizes

    immersion has two types, diegetic (immersion achieved through gameplay) and intra-diegetic

    (immersion achieved through story). Additionally, from Tanskanen’s [14] Immersion Venn

    diagram, we can deduce the elements required for the player to achieve immersion while playing

    a videogame and is displayed as in (Figure 4).

    Figure 4: Achieving immersion in Videogames [14]

    Immersion can be achieved blending psychology, storytelling and game design together, where

    the player relates both the game and their life.

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    2.5 Achieving balance between story and gameplay

    [15] Games were designed previously with the trend (pre-cutscene era) to immerse the

    players through game metrics and mechanics. Additionally, current trends (with evolving graphics

    and growing demand for story-oriented games) suggests that story is added into the game, acting

    as an augmenting mechanism. However, inducing cutscenes just for the sake of providing

    conversation, impacts the interactivity level of the player by curtailing gameplay. Hence, both story

    and engagement are treated as independent devices engulfing the overall core motive behind the

    game’s creation. Having said that, game designers are trying to balance the Ludo-narrative

    dissonance (drift created between narrative in gameplay and gameplay in narrative) while creating

    games, with player’s mindset in comprehension. One such games to achieve a perfect blend of

    both these elements is ‘Bioshock’, where Onyett [16] in his review, acclaimed the convergence of

    engaging gameplay mechanism with the ominous plotline, inclusive of various characters. Further,

    research by [17] suggests that, incorporating narrative in games increases the player’s emotional

    attachment on the game world, thereby inducing repeatability in playing of the game. Literature

    Review

    3. Methodology

    [11] For this research, three qualitative analysis methods (Case Study, Formal Analysis and

    Close Reading) are combined as a mixed model and analyzed on Uncharted 4. The mixed models’

    approach is chosen to understand on how narrative and gameplay co-exist in a story-driven game.

    Additionally, research [25] suggests that, game-studies have developed in such a way that, it

    requires multi- and inter-disciplinary collaboration, as it is now being considered as an art with

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    many disciplines. Further, this section will give a brief on the individual models and how they will

    be implemented.

    3.1 Case-Study

    Case Study is described by Creswell [26] as a method where the reader explores a

    constricted system over time, conducting an in-depth analysis on it, collecting data based on the

    case theme and description. Further, case study is often criticized when it is researched on just a

    sole subject (Uncharted 4) for addressing an issue (minimizing the Ludo-narrative dissonance), as

    it might lack context outside its scope. However, case study is a good generalizing agent, which

    can be used as an initiator for other data collection and analysis. Likewise, Remenyi [27] writes,

    case study asks very important research questions depending on the context, which is derived from

    various resources. Thus, case study acts as a good starting model, to build on the other two models.

    The Case study consists of playing Uncharted 4 multiple times and watching official

    reviews/walkthroughs, analyzing the narrative devices and gameplay devices used in Chapter:11

    Hidden in Plain Sight (Uncharted 4). The entire narrative architecture for the game is considered

    and then research is conducted on one chapter, to comprehend on the nature of merging both the

    devices, which can be scaled to all the other chapters.

    3.2 Formal Analysis

    The outputs of case-study research are gameplay and narrative artefacts, which consists of

    detailed analysis on the chapter, considering various perspectives on it and with numerous

    iterations into playing the chapter. Further, Lankoski and Bjork [28] exclaim, formal analysis as a

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    research, which considers each artefact and its elements closely, forming relations between them.

    Additionally, Fernandez-Vara’s [29] research suggests that, formal analysis can be split into two,

    formalist (explores textual data) and structuralist (explores mathematical data). However, in this

    research’s scope formalist approach is chosen for analysis, and [29] defined it in terms of

    videogame’s perspective as, an approach to study the game’s components (rules, gameplay

    components, control schematics) along with the interfacing component (interfacing design,

    narrative, visual architecture).

    The research was conducted by considering the artefacts for narrative devices (Dialogues,

    cutscenes) and analyzed by using two formalist-based qualitative analysis methodology (i)

    Searle’s Speech Act theory and (ii) Jarvinen’s six types of game rhetoric. Where, Searle’s

    approach [30], analyses the narrative devices based on its implications to the context, by

    classifying it to the 5 elements (Assertive, Commissive, Directive, Declarative and Expressive) and

    Jarvinen’s approach [31], focuses on how gameplay devices are linked to the narrative devices, by

    framing the contextual situation into 6 categories (Gratification, Motivation, Goal, Means,

    Feedback, Outcome). Further, gameplay devices (rules, gorals and mechanics) were individually

    analyzed and related with narrative parallelly and were framed as artefacts.

    3.3 Close Reading

    Formal analysis outputs two forms of artefacts from gameplay and narrative devices, which

    is further analysed by using Close Reading. Where, Bizzocchi and Tanenbaum [32] describes it as

    detailed analysis on these artefacts, to study on how immersive the content is, on repeated view.

    Further, they add on stating that, these artefacts are comprehended for how they manifest the player

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    in understanding the decision-making component in the game/level. Close Reading gets an overall

    idea on how these artefacts can be diversified in its application.

    4. Narrative and Gameplay Analysis on Uncharted 4

    Passive introduction of narrative elements into videogames ever since from its creation,

    has proven benefits more than hinderance, by initiating a sense of immersion. Consequently, this

    study investigates on how narrative blends well with other game design components and on how

    other agents imparts and reacts with one another.

    The videogame (Uncharted 4) was analyzed by studying its narrative implications

    (dialogues and cutscenes) and gameplay components (rules, goals and mechanics) by continuously

    playing the game’s chapter 11 (Hidden in Plain Sight). It took around 54 minutes to 73 minutes to

    complete the chapter, with a total gameplay/narrative time of 188 minutes to play by myself.

    Further, to understand the game through various perspectives, game walkthroughs by TmarTn2

    [33], Trophygamers [34] and IGN [35] were researched which accounted for a total runtime of 176

    minutes in whole.

    This section of the report consists Firstly (Section 4.1), case-study and overview on the

    events that happen in Chapter:11 Hidden in Plain Sight. Secondly (Section 4.2) discusses about

    storytelling elements in the chapter along with its link to core plot elements inclusive of the

    narrative. Thirdly (Section 4.3) discusses the game’s design elements and gameplay’s interfacing

    elements included in the game, and also on how it causes immersion.

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    4.1. Case Study on Uncharted 4 (Chapter 11: Hidden in Plain Sight)

    This chapter introduces the characters Nathan Drake (Nate) and Victor Sullivan (Sully) into

    a sequence (cutscene) where they enter into the market and with passive dialogues, prompting the

    player to head to the clock tower (in which Nate believes they can obtain the clue to find Avery’s

    treasure). The player is given control to navigate through the market interacting with non-playable

    characters, helps in creating realistic conversations. The (Figure 5) shows Nate navigating through

    the market, towards the tower.

    Figure 5: Navigating through the market [35]

    Nate and Sully reach the tower and found it to be locked. Sully helps us (through dialogues) by

    guiding us to enter the tower through an alternate entrance. Nate and Sully enter the clock tower

    and enter the lair where the zodiac puzzle exists, which can be viewed as shown in (Figure 6)

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    Figure 6: Nate encounters clock tower puzzle [35]

    The puzzle can be solved with the help of Nate’s journal (gameplay mechanic) and sully (through

    his narrative cues). The clock tower puzzle consists of 4 lever mechanisms to be turned in a certain

    order to progress further in the game. The Journal guiding the player is shown as in (Figure 7).

    Figure 7: Journal guiding Nate in solving the clock tower puzzle [35]

    The player is constantly given feedback on the progress of completing the pearl (clock tower

    puzzle) by Sully. Once all levers are turned, the bell from the top of the clock tower, breaks down

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    to create a hole in the ground, creating a passage to another room. Nate and Sully will enter this

    room (Minor cutscene). This room will consist of a wheel mechanism, having Henry Avery’s and

    Thomas Tew’s sigils on it (whose treasure Nate & co are seeking to obtain in this game). Nate will

    have to turn the sigil-marked squared block on the puzzle mechanism, to open up 3 rooms,

    consisting of 10 other pirate’s portraits, where the player will have to identify clues from that. The

    player is prompted/guided by narrative (where Nate calls/texts Sam (Nate’s brother), to get advice

    on solving the puzzle). The founder’s wheel mechanism is shown as in (Figure 8).

    Figure 8: Founder wheel's mechanism [35]

    Nate turns all the blocks and calls Sam to convey the ‘Clue to Avery’s treasure’, but Rafe (a former

    adversary of Nate & Sam’s) interrupts the call and intimidates Nate and Sam to stay away from

    the treasure and is shown in a cutscene, chasing Sam. Nate and Sully rush out of the clock tower,

    entering the market again, where they are confronted by Rafe’s men. The player uses the game

    mechanics (guns, bombs) to take care of them and is also guided by the narrative (parallelly by

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    Sully to avoid certain gameplay events), to progress to the next linear set of events in the plot.

    Subsequently, Nate enters a car and drives towards the tower (where Sam is presumed to be), in

    this process, they are chased by a menacing truck (driven by Rafe’s men). Escaping the truck is

    properly constructed in such a way that the player is given an immersive experience of having the

    entire environment to navigate (developer creates an immersive open-world illusion), but in turn

    is driving the car in a structured path towards achieving the game-events created by the developer.

    A part of chase sequence is shown as in (Figure 9).

    Figure 9: Car chase sequence [36]

    The player reaches the tower and spots the chasing convoy (chasing Sam). The player is then given

    a great gameplay experience, where Nate jumps from one vehicle to another, using variety of

    gameplay mechanics (guns, bombs, close-combat punches), progressing linearly in terms of

    narrative, with dynamic manipulation of the gaming events that is happening in the sequence. The

    chase sequence can be seen as in (Figure 10) and (Figure 11).

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    Figure 10: Manipulatable character during chase sequence -I [36]

    Figure 11:Manipulatable character during chase sequence -II [36]

    The sequence ends when Nate reaches Sam in front of the convoy chase and gets on the bike Sam

    is driving. They are chased by a truck, where a cutscene sequence merged with gameplay

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    mechanics, engrosses the player into the sequence. Finally, the player is driven by a cutscene into

    the next pearl, where a major cutscene leads the narrative into next phase (Act -III).

    4.2. Narrative in Uncharted 4 - chapter 11

    Narrative elements utilized in the game is connoted as narrative devices and includes

    Dialogues and cutscenes. Individual devices are analyzed by using formal analysis methodology,

    Searle’s Speech Act theory [30] and Jarvinen’s six types of game rhetoric [31]. Various patterns

    incurring in the plot is investigated for this chapter, to understand on how narrative is incorporated

    in a story-driven game. Further, section 4.2.1 discusses about the narrative architecture used in the

    game, where Section 4.2.2 analyses about the dialogue/cutscenes devices used in Chapter 11.

    4.2.1. Narrative Architecture used in the game

    The narrative architecture used in videogames are very similar to narrative in films/arts,

    with only difference that, in videogames the players are part of the story. Uncharted 4 follows 4-

    Act narrative structure, which allows a structured build-up, with sequential changes to the plotline,

    without deviation from the crux of the story. Amazingly, the major plot events in the storyline are

    not dynamic and won’t depend on the choices the player makes, yet it engages the player with

    proper correlation of it with gameplay devices. Additionally, (Table 1) describes the

    4-act architecture’s structure and its embodying narrative constituents (plotline triggers for the

    entire story).

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    Act Act Elements Description Act Elements in Uncharted 4

    Act I (Setup

    and

    complication)

    Hook

    This will induce a reaction

    amongst the audience, by

    imploring more on towards the

    character development of your

    key players. Focus more on the

    effect and make players care for

    the ‘hook’.

    The Hook created in Uncharted 4

    upon starting the game is ‘Nathan

    Drake’ and ‘Sam Drake’ are

    driving (in a boat) towards an

    island, being chased/assaulted by

    a group (in boats). The Hook is

    created when the boat is

    damaged/capsized. (prologue)

    Inciting Incident

    After setting up the world, create

    a ‘turning point’, which will

    cause a problem which will

    reengage the players, by creating

    a change. Inciting incident causes

    way and provides an instigation

    for the first plot point to happen.

    The past story in which the both

    the boys stay in St. Francis

    orphanage and the incident of

    breakout, followed by a

    transitional skip to breaking into

    jail (Panama) to

    find/investigate/explore on the

    treasure left by Henry Avery

    worth 400 million with the help

    of Warden Vargas and another

    member ‘Rafe’, where they find

    St.Dismas idol (crucifix). In turn

    of events, they end up killing

    Vargas (Rafe kills him by

    stabbing) who wanted a cut in the

    treasure, followed by escaping

    from the prison, during which

    Sam was deemed to have died.

    (Chapter 1 – 2)

    First Plot Point

    Signals end of first act and raises

    a question, which needs to be

    addressed in the climax. The

    question needs to be unique,

    which will allow you to narrow

    you onto the next story arc.

    The Plot then transitions to show

    the main characters normal life

    with a salvage company and,

    routine life with his wife Elena.

    Further, one-night Sam returns

    and tells Nathan the story of his

    escape and his acquaintance with

    a drug lord (Hector Alcazar) who

    helped him escape a prison, who

    threatens Sam if he doesn’t find

    and give the treasure within 3

    months, in which Nathan then

    agrees to help Sam finding it,

    lying to Elena. (Chapter 3 -5)

    Act II (Conflict

    and Rising

    action)

    Pinch

    Pinch points are where the

    pressure amps up and creates a

    halfway in the second and third

    act. Pinches helps in creating

    ‘audience re-focusing element’,

    towards the next plotline.

    Upon finding the location of the

    treasure to be in the Henry’s

    grave, the crew along with an old

    friend of Nate’s (Victor Sullivan),

    travel to Scotland. Further,

    digging deep, the crew found that

    Avery was hiring other pirates for

    something and had narrowed on

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    to a location ‘Libertalia’, but

    before leaving to the location,

    Elena confronts them and is

    sad/infuriated on not filling in on

    her and not telling her about his

    (Nate’s) Brother. While hearing

    this news, Nate declines to go

    with Elena and tells Sully to take

    Elena back home and moves

    ahead with Sam to the libertalia

    island. (Chapter 6 -11)

    Context shifting

    midpoint

    A big change occurs, in which the

    actor tries something he had

    trained or establishing a whole

    new setup, which paves way for

    the third and final act. (It happens

    mostly in the middle of the story)

    The story connects to the

    ‘prologue’ now and Nate crash

    lands on the island with Sam,

    both search for clues in the

    island , towards the treasure

    (Where they found that there was

    a civil war between ‘founders and

    Colonists’, after Founders kept all

    the gold) and to safeguard their

    treasure they moved it to other

    side or Libertalia, New Davon.

    (Chapter 12-14)

    Act III (Crisis)

    Second Pinch

    point

    Second challenge occurs, which

    will shock the audience, making

    the protagonist taking counter-

    measures.

    Where Sam reveals that there was

    no ‘Alcazar’ and he had died 6

    months ago. Where Rafe comes

    suddenly and reveals that he had

    freed Sam from the prison and

    shoots a bullet at Nate. Sam

    jumps in and gets shot, whereas

    Nate falls from the cliff.

    (Chapter 15)

    Second plot

    point

    Setting up the climax, by setting

    up something new and fresh,

    which is not obvious, to hook the

    players just before the climax.

    A back story showing the

    intentions and actual life story of

    both the Drake brothers,

    showcase the whole intent of not

    only Uncharted 4 but pretty much

    sums up the entire Uncarted

    series. This when told by Nate to

    Elena, didn’t want to hurt him

    more by asking him about recent

    events. Elena and Sully offers

    help to Nathan to save Sam.

    Working their way to New

    Davon, they found that the

    ‘Founders quarreled amongst

    themselves, where Avery and

    Tew poisoned all others, taking

    themselves the treasure. (Chapter

    16-19)

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    Act IV

    (Climax)

    Confrontation

    and Falling

    action

    Reveal all the hidden elements

    and the buildup, also induces an

    unexpected shake up, showcasing

    the need/ reason for the story

    Arriving at the Avery’s ship in

    the Cavern and saving Sam sums

    up the story, ending in death of

    Rafe and with partial help of

    Nadine. (Chapter 20-21)

    Ending shows the daughter of

    Elena and Nathan (Living a

    normal life in beach), viewing her

    parent’s expeditions and

    endeavors as explorers. (Chapter

    22)

    Table 1:4-Act structure explained [12]

    Storyline follows the string of pearls [10] narrative model embedded with the 4-act

    architecture in which, the ‘Acts’ define the major plot points in the whole story, which is

    correspondingly linked with the concerned chapters (where the occurring events are properly

    connected to the Acts). Further, these chapters consist of linear sequence of events (pearls)

    connected by strings with proper logical flow, which can be viewed as in (Figure 12).

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    Figure 12: Narrative Architectural model

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    4.2.2. Narrative Devices

    Narrative devices (Dialogues, Cutscenes) were researched based on utterances made by the

    main characters between them, as well as to the other non-playable characters (NPCs). These

    devices were researched by using formal data analysis methods, (i) Searle’s Speech Act theory

    [30], which uses cause and effect theory on speech arts (where speaker ‘S’ causes situation ‘X’) is

    learnt on the narrative devices (artefacts). They consist of 5 forms of narrative connotations linking

    them with dialogues/cutscenes and they are:

    • Assertive: Shows acts of confidence and command such as, suggesting, boasting,

    concluding.

    • Commissive: Committing the speaker to a future course of action, such as, promising,

    planning, vowing, opposing.

    • Directive: giving authoritative instructions such as, asking, ordering, requesting, inviting,

    advising, begging and opposing.

    • Declarative: Changes the state of the world, such as, a causing effect.

    • Expressive: feeling exerted by the speaker on context to the situation, such as, thanking,

    welcoming and apologizing.

    The next type is Jarvinen’s six types of game rhetoric [31], which involves relating gameplay

    elements with the narrative devices. It is widely used in ludology for expressing ludic elements

    (gameplay mechanics) in terms of narrative. It has 6 types and it shown below:

    • Gratification: persuading the player to keep playing and induces immersion.

    • Motivation: motivate players into the desired role in gameplay.

    • Goal: explains the game’s goals and engages the player into the game mechanics.

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    • Means: interaction with player by means of gameplay agents.

    • Feedback: informs the player on progress of the game

    • Outcome: informs the player regarding an event’s end point inside each game sequence.

    Dialogues are used in videogames when characters converse between them (Story-

    oriented dialogues) or when the player is guided to perform any gameplay action (Gameplay-

    oriented dialogues). In Uncharted 4, Dialogues are used under two perspectives, such as when

    Nate narrates “Excuse me. Hey, here we go… Locked… I guess we’re gonna have to sneak in.”,

    directs the player to take an alternative route, which is a gameplay-oriented dialogue. Whereas,

    “Voicemail. Hey, Sam. Looks like we’re at the right tower Call us. They don’t have the best

    coverage in this city.”, connects the story-element, by story-oriented dialogues. These elements

    when combined and viewed from the player’s perspective, immersion occurs. Dialogues for

    chapter 11, were obtained from game-scripts [37] and was inputted in the artefacts.

    Cutscenes are another narrative facet used in videogames to engage players in two frontiers

    (story and gameplay), where the shaky camera with an immersive handheld sequence of the

    character agents moving in action sequence, gives the player a close connected feel on the events

    occurring. Major cutscenes occurs in the narrative for providing character/environment

    introduction (setting up the world or major plot changing events), whereas minor cutscenes occurs

    when immediate transition is required from a gameplay mechanic to another event, i.e. connecting

    various pearls together. Further, proactive cutscenes occur when interfacing gameplay mechanic

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    to gameplay mechanic transition, bridging an immersive and engaging narrative content to hook

    the players even more.

    [11] The narrative devices used was researched by splitting it into two perspectives, one from

    narrative’s point of view and other from gameplay’s point of view and the format is shown as in

    (Table 2).

    Device Description Narrative

    component

    Gameplay

    component Example

    Dialogues

    Story: utterance

    contributing to the

    story/plot.

    Assertive,

    Commissive,

    Directive,

    Declarative,

    Expressive

    Gratification,

    Motivation,

    Goal, Means,

    Feedback,

    Outcome

    “You really think

    all that treasure

    gonna be just

    sitting in the

    middle of a

    goddamn

    market?”

    Gameplay: utterances

    which acts as guides,

    by framing

    instructions.

    “Ah. Hey, check

    it out – that

    window over

    there is broken.”

    Cutscenes

    Story: occurs for

    introducing/mediating/

    concluding story

    elements to the player.

    Major/minor

    cutscenes

    Gameplay:

    transitioning elements

    interfacing game-

    mechanics, with a

    smooth blend.

    Proactive

    cutscenes

    Table 2: narrative devices (artefact description) [11]

    (Table 2) describes on how the formal analysis is going to be conducted and the analyzed

    product is an (Artefact 1) for the research.

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    4.3. Gameplay Devices

    Gameplay is an interactive and interfacing device that physically and mentally engages

    players to take part in the game and give inputs through a ‘press of a button’, which is translated

    to manipulation of the character in the videogame. Uncharted 4’s gameplay is embedded in the

    game’s narrative, where the player is guided to execute a set of game mechanics, to progress

    linearly in the narrative. The game included ‘stealth mode’ and ‘driving mode’ which is new

    installments in the overall series. The Uncharted series follows a ‘3rd person point of view’ camera

    angle, is slightly innovated in Uncharted 4 by bringing the camera frame down a little (just above

    the character’s shoulder), which provides more engrossing experience for the players. Gameplay

    devices (Rules, Goals and mechanics) are experienced at a closer angle and has contextualized

    meaning behind each sequential event. These gameplay events are linked together in specific

    narrative pattern (guided by the plot) to form a co-existing medium, thereby forming ties between

    each character in the story. Each element is individually identified and analyzed as an artefact, to

    study on how the game minimizes the Ludo-narrative dissonance, through encompassing all the

    elements together.

    4.3.1 Rules

    Rules form the boundaries of the game and instructs the players on how to finish a

    chapter/game. They formulate constraints, in which the players can access only those contents in

    the game-world established. For analysis purpose, uncharted 4 is considered to consist of 3 rules,

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    navigate, explore and address challenges. Each of these elements consists of a narrative and

    gameplay component to it and can be accessed by the player and can exercise it in multiple ways.

    Firstly, navigate gives ‘start and end points’ defined by the developer for each pearl, and

    the player can choose various methods/duration to reach the end point, upon entering the

    navigation phase. For example, in Uncharted 4: Chapter 11, for the first pearl (Entering the market)

    the ‘start point’ is in navigating through the crowd in the direction towards the clock tower and

    ‘end point’ is in reaching the tower by entering through an alternate entrance. However, certain

    environmental challenges will hinder the pathway between these checkpoints and will vary

    depending on the context of the game. Being smart on what game mechanics to utilize for

    completing these tasks is essential to determine the ‘game-time’.

    Secondly, explore makes the player take a non-linear route to obtain certain

    utilities/equipment to reach or complete the task in hand. Further, exploring can be viewed through

    narrative and gameplay’s lens, in which narrative-oriented exploring involves in gathering details

    either information or supplies that are present part of the game environment created but not pivotal

    to the plot, whereas, gameplay -oriented exploring involves in attaining an item or in performing

    an action, to progress linearly in the game. This is an element where an open-world illusion is

    created, which immerses the player in wanting more from the game.

    Thirdly, to address challenges gives the player purpose for exploring. Players are often

    obstructed in the flow of events; hence they will have to modify their approach towards solving

    that task. When viewed from the narrative’s perspective challenges the player in completing the

    sequence, to progress further. Conclusively, various rules and their descriptions are shown as in

    (Table 3) and framed as the (Artefact 2).

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    Rules Description Example

    Navigate

    Gameplay: moving in the environment created

    from the fixed entry to the exit created.

    Entering the clock tower,

    turning the levers of various

    zodiac signs in an order to

    exit to the next pearl.

    Story: Narrative inferences guiding the players

    in completing the tasks within each pearl.

    If pattern turned is wrong,

    Sully prompts Nate to try a

    different approach.

    Explore

    Gameplay: Searching the environment to find

    utilities, which will help the player to progress in

    story.

    Finding supplies/guns, clues

    for puzzles etc.

    Story: helps player in gaining more insight

    towards the events happening in the game.

    Finding paper works of

    ancient pirates to reveal the

    plot even more.

    Address

    Challenges

    Gameplay: Completing tasks to overcome

    confronted problem, to progress in story.

    Environmental, human,

    puzzle.

    Story: overcoming obstacles, so that characters

    can be free of imminent threats. Environmental, human.

    Table 3: Rules artefact description [11]

    4.3.1 Goals

    Goals are framed end-points or checkpoints, that the player reaches to measure the

    progress that they have achieved in the game. The pearls in the chapter are linked by a start and

    end ‘macro goals’ by series of ‘micro-goals’, where these are narrative-base goals. The micro goals

    are interlinked by ‘moment-to-moment goals’, where these are gameplay-based goals.

    Conclusively, the goals in the chapter and their descriptions are shown as in (Table 4) and it is

    inputted as an (Artefact 3).

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    Goals Description Example

    Story-Oriented

    Macro

    Major plot event-based

    goals, determining the scope for

    the entire chapter.

    Finding Clue about

    Avery's treasure from one of

    the towers in King's Bay

    Micro

    Objectives that needs to

    be addressed to progress linearly

    in the plot events inside pearls,

    linking macro goals.

    Solving the Zodiac

    Puzzle

    Gameplay-oriented

    Moment-to-

    Moment (M-t-M)

    Detailed tasks which

    interlinks the micro goals and

    will mostly involve in solving

    task-based gameplay events.

    Turning the Scorpio

    wheel

    Table 4: Goals artefact description [11]

    4.3.1 Game Mechanics

    Game mechanics entails controlling of character (Nathan drake) to comprehend on his

    character traits, movement logics and how he can manipulate the environment. The whole game

    involves an engaged mechanism, in which gameplay components are linked with narrative medium,

    which facilitates logic behind each move of the character. Character’s physical movements mimics

    an actual human and embodies real world dynamics of human body. The character can be

    controlled to run, climb, write notes in his journal, jump, and shoot weapon, thus pretty much like

    a normal human. Naughty Dog (Production house of Uncharted Series) takes intricate details into

    account and always have strived to harness the full potential of each gaming console, in terms of

    rendering graphics.

    Further, Gameplay components involve three main categories [11],

    (i) Strategy, which has Stealth: a passive approach towards enemies, with a scope to

    either kill or avoid them, Offensive: an all-out attack maneuver brining down

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    enemies, Avoidance: where the character totally avoids combat and proceeds to

    next phase, Navigate: this is when character has to move around the environment

    to solve puzzle or find clues for next plot point.

    (ii) Interactive Mechanism, which consists of Distance: which is by interfacing

    both the strategy and utility the player chooses, the player stays at a certain distance

    and engages in combat, Hand-to-Hand: which involves exchanging physical

    punches with enemies, Vehicle: where the player drives a car part of a chase or as

    exploring mode, Puzzle: this involves the player solving various puzzles involved

    in narrative.

    (iii) Utilities: which consists of Guns: there are variety of guns ranging from pistols,

    sub-machine guns, assault rifles, sniper rifles, shotguns to utilize in the game,

    Bombs: the character utilizes frag grenades, which explode after pulling the trigger

    pin with a offset timer, Journal: this is a personal log maintained by Nate

    throughout the series, which guides him whenever he is stuck in the game.

    Conclusively, the game mechanics in the chapter is analyzed as an (Artefact 4).

    5. Emergent analysis of the artefacts in minimizing Ludo-narrative dissonance

    All the artefacts (Formal analysis) from both paradigms (narrative and gameplay) are

    considered segment by segment in accordance to the time-scale for the Chapter:11, i.e. from

    starting of the chapter till the end of it. Subsequently, each element in the chapter is aligned in the

    same (String of pearls model) structure, with each event is caused by an action and leads on to

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    another set of action-event scenarios, but is linked in a branching fashion (i.e. each event is not

    independent of themselves but linked to each other in order of time , within/between chapters).

    Further, this research studies on the player’s impact on the game as well, such as their contribution

    in terms of construction of events in the game.

    ‘Coding methodology’ is proposed in this research, which acts as a pseudocode for

    developers/game enthusiasts to view the development of immersion in narrative-oriented

    videogames. Further, this process is achieved by taking the individual devices and framing short

    codes, and sequentially arranging them based on the time-space of the events occurring in the

    chapter. Below is given an artefact (Emergent_Narrative_Architecture_Chapter 11, Artefact 5) in

    (Table 5).

    Emergent - Narrative Architecture (Hidden in Plane Sight)

    Content Type of Content

    Description Code

    Minor Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    Panning the camera showcasing the view of Pirate's Bay and the market, where Nate and Sully enters.

    MinCs

    Navigate Rule,

    Mechanics Enter the Market and walk towards the tower N

    Story world

    Dialogues

    Narrative Devices

    Conversation between Nate and Sully on their previous endeavors and also with game agents in the market.

    swD

    Explore Rule Proceeding in the direction of tower, Nate and Sully moves through the crowd, thereby interacting with various NPCs.

    Ex

    MICRO GOAL 1

    Gameplay Dialogues

    Narrative Devices

    Upon reaching the tower, the tower's front door is locked. Sully guides (redirects) the player through dialogue.

    gpD

    Major Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    Nate and Sully enter the clock tower and visualizes the Zodiac puzzle in hand.

    MajCs

    Navigate Rule,

    mechanics Move around clock tower N

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    Viewing Journal

    Mechanics Making notes in Nate's journal and helps the player in solving

    the puzzle VJ

    Explore Rule interact with the levers to activate each zodiac puzzle's elements

    based on the right pattern. Ex

    Address Challenges

    Rule Need to activate all the zodiac symbols by ringing the

    corresponding bells in a order. AC

    Minor Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    Upon completion of the puzzle, the giant bell at the top falls and breaks down the ground, leading to another room.

    MinCs

    MICRO GOAL 2

    Minor Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    A cutscene showing the founder's wheel and gives the player visual cues on the task ahead.

    MinCs

    Puzzle Mechanics Aligning the pirate sigils in a specific pattern to open the gates

    (containing clues for more pirate sigils) Pz

    Viewing Journal

    Mechanics Viewing the journal, player can rotate sigils in accordance. VJ

    Gameplay Dialogues

    Narrative Devices

    Guiding the player when the protagonist (Nate) is unsure of sigils. (i.e. calling/texting Sam to get insight on sigils).

    gpD

    Major Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    Reveal that Rafe and his men are after Sam and hence Player is driven to that action.

    MajCs

    MICRO GOAL 3

    Navigate Rule,

    mechanics Nate and Sully re-enters the market and views the burning

    tower. N

    Gameplay Dialogues

    Narrative Devices

    Sully insists not to focus on damaging the truck, as it cant be armed.

    gpD

    Avoidance Mechanics Avoiding the tank and getting in the car after killing Rafe's initial

    men A

    Offensive, Guns

    Mechanics Nate fights Rafe's men using guns O, G

    Vehicle Mechanics Driving the car towards the tower avoiding truck V

    Gameplay Dialogues

    Narrative Devices

    If straying away the mission using the car, Sully instructs to stick to the mission

    gpD

    Address Challenges

    Rules Reaching the tower to view Rafe's men chasing Sam AC

    MICRO GOAL 4

    Vehicle Mechanics Jump from vehicle to vehicle to clear enemies and progress

    further towards Sam V

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    Offensive,

    Guns Mechanics Shooting Rafe's men with guns. O, G

    Minor Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    Upon reaching Sam, They both escape in the same car agasint a chasing truck.

    MinCs

    Guns, Vehicle

    Mechanics Shooting the truck while its chasing G, V

    Major Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    A cutscene were Sam and Nate combne to bring down the truck and head to the Ikopa Motel.

    MajCs

    Address Challenges

    Rules Bringing down the truck and heading towards the motel AC

    MICRO GOAL 5

    Major Cutscene

    Narrative Devices

    A major clue is deciphered by Nate to Sam and Sully, where he is also confronted by Elena, where the plot takes a turn.

    MajCs

    Table 5:Emergent narrative architecture artefact

    Further, these codes are represented using a ‘play-pattern pseudocode’ (named for this research),

    arranging them in the order, based on the events in the chapter, and is given below:

    UNCHARTED 4 (Chapter 11: Hidden in Plain Sight)

    1. MinCs

    2. N, swD, Ex

    3. AC

    4. gpD, MajCs, N, VJ, Ex, MinCs, Ex, MinCs, Ex,

    swD, Ex, MinCs, swD, Ex, MinCs, N, AC, MajCs

    5. swD, gpD, MinCs, Pz, Ex, VJ, Pz, gpD, Ex, gpD,

    swD, gpD, VJ,

    Pz, swD, gpD, VJ, Pz, swD, gpD, AC, MajCs,

    6. N, gpD, O, G, A, MinCs, V, swD, gpD, AC, MajCs

    7. MajCs, O, (V,G - loop), MinCs, G, AC, MajCs

    8. MajCs

    9. Macro Goal

    Table 6: Play-pattern pseudocode artefact

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    The play-pattern shown here might vary from player to player, because of the dynamism involved

    in using game-mechanics. However, the plot won’t change and hence the experience/immersion

    felt will be the same. Immersion can occur in multiple forms and in multiple ways, the pattern

    shown in (Table 6) shows one-way of it occurring and with multiple iterations can lead to a ‘robust

    code’, ensuring repeatability in audience, in playing the game. The way of coding behavioral logic

    is one way of understanding the player’s role in being part of the game and recursive patterns, will

    ensure that the player likes to get engaged in a certain pattern. This effectively causes an active

    relationship between the player and game, as he/she is taken into a journey of the character’s

    through the narrative, by keying in gameplay logic to the system, relating their own personal

    journeys.

    6. Conclusion

    Before the arrival of the narrative-oriented videogames, engagement was considered

    primary amongst game developers, whereas narrative was left only to convey the story, with no

    interactivity between them. Trends changed when players demanded more from videogames, with

    advent of narrative/story into video games, from early 1980 to 1990s (from Final Fantasy to

    Wolfentstein 3D, DeusEx, System Shock), videogames have evolved with narrative being an

    important part in the development. With this emerging trend, developers considered each element

    separately and there existed a gap, which needed to be addressed. That gap (having too much

    narrative in gameplay or too much gameplay in narrative), in research terms, was defined as ‘Ludo-

    narrative dissonance’, which even today, developers and top-gaming companies are trying to

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    minimize and find the proper balance. This study, analyses narrative-oriented videogame

    (Uncharted 4) by considering narrative and gameplay, from player’s lens and in developing

    artefacts (detailed study items) for each of the gaming paradigm and deriving its links. Further, the

    research proposes a pseudo-code ‘play-pattern pseudocode’, which is an agent of immersion, as it

    maps individual elements occluding in the game and mapping it into a linear set of events.

    Conclusively, developers will need to take players into account while designing a game,

    considering which factors will instigate immersion and which wont and can ‘code’ elements

    together to understand on its impacts (visualization aid), when playing a game.

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    References

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    Press, 2004.

    [2] K. Salen, K. S.Tekinbaş , E.Zimmerman, “Rules of play: Game design fundamentals”, MIT

    press, 2004

    [3] M. L. Ryan, “Beyond Ludus: narrative, videogames and the split condition of digital

    textuality Marie-Laure Ryan”, Videogame, player, text, 8, 2007.

    [4] "Following A Four Act Structure: How To Keep It Fresh", Medium, 2019. [Online].

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    it-fresh-b0a454a92575. [Accessed: 01- Oct- 2019].

    [5] J. L. Austin, “How to do things with words”, Oxford university press, 1975.

    [6 ]Runeklevjer.files.wordpress.com, 2019. [Online]. Available:

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