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Lesson plan backpacking

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RequirementsDiscuss the prevention of and treatment for the health concerns that could occur while backpacking, including hypothermia, heat reactions, frostbite, dehydration, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters.Do the following:List 10 items that are essential to be carried on any backpacking trek and explain why each item is necessary.Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your pack without jeopardizing your health or safety.Do the following:Define limits on the number of backpackers appropriate for a trek crew.Describe how a trek crew should be organized.Tell how you would minimize risk on a backpacking trek.Do the following:Describe the importance of using Leave No Trace principles while backpacking, and at least five ways you can lessen the crew's impact on the environment.Describe proper methods of handling human and other wastes while on a backpacking trek. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal cleanliness while on a backpacking trek.Tell what factors are important in choosing a campsite.Do the following:Demonstrate two ways to treat water and tell why water treatment is essential.Explain to your counselor the importance of staying well-hydrated during a trek.Do the following:Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps.While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the ground at least three times at three different places, OR use a GPS receiver to establish your position on a topographic map and on the ground at least three times at three different places.Explain how to stay found, and what to do if you get lost.Tell how to prepare properly for and deal with inclement weather.Do the following:Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of backpacking stoves using at least three different types of fuel.Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely and to handle liquid fuel safely.Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a backpack.Demonstrate that you know how to keep cooking and eating gear clean and sanitary, and that you practice proper methods for food storagewhile on a backpacking trek.Do the following:Write a plan for a patrol backpacking hike that includes a schedule.Show that you know how to properly pack your personal gear and your share of the crew's gear and food.Show you can properly shoulder your pack and adjust it for proper wear.Conduct a prehike inspection of the patrol and its equipment.While carrying your pack, complete a hike of at least 2 miles.Using Leave No Trace principles, participate in at least three backpacking treks of at least three days each and at least 15 miles each, and using at least two different campsites. Carry everything you will need throughout the trek.Do the following:Write a plan for a backpacking trek of at least five days using at least three different campsites and covering at least 30 miles. Your plan must include a description of and route to the trek area, a schedule (including a daily schedule), a list of food and equipment needs, a safety and emergency plan, and a budget.Using Leave No Trace principles, take the trek planned and, while on the trek, complete at least one service project approved by your merit badge counselor.Keep a daily journal during the trek that includes a day-by-day description of your activities, including notes about what worked well and thoughts about improvements that could be made for the next trek.

Hypothermia: Over-exposure to colder temperatures over time that result in a drop in body core temperature. Treatment: Removing them from the elements that caused the condition. Seek a dry, warm place away from the wind. Initial mental status changes in response to cold may be subtle and include hunger and nausea.This will progress to apathy, confusion, slurred speech, and loss of coordination.Many times a person will just lie down, fall asleep, and die.

Frostbite: Occurs when tissues freeze. This condition happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin. Treatment: Keep the affected part elevated in order to reduce swelling, move to a warm area to prevent further heat loss, remove all constrictive jewelry and clothes because they may further block blood flow, give the person warm non-caffeinated fluids to drink, apply a dry, sterile bandage, place cotton between any involved fingers or toes (to prevent rubbing), and take the person to a medical facility as soon as possible In superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen.In deep frostbite, there is an initial decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy

Dehydration: Occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. Treatment: Sip small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Treat for heat Increased thirst with dry mouth and swollen tongueWeakness and/or dizziness Confusion and/or sluggishness, even fainting Inability to sweat Decreased urine output. If urine is concentrated and deeply yellow or amber, you may be dehydrated.

First Aid

2 Heatstroke: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where organ damage. Treatment: Ice packs/sheets, IV fluids, and medical evacuationUnconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma) Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water) May have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later May be hyperventilating Rectal (core) temperature of 105F or more

Heat exhaustion: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat. Treatment: oral fluids & cool shadingOften pale with cool, moist skin Sweating profusely Muscle cramps or pains Feels faint or dizzy May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea Core (rectal) temperature elevatedusually more than 100Fand the pulse rate increased

Sunburn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. The time between 11 am and 2 pm contains the most powerful solar radiation exposure period. Treatment: Sun protection or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times, but especially during this time to decrease risk of sunburn.Sunburned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until ours later. If exposure to the sun continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form. First Aid

3 Snakebite: Usually occur because of accidental or deliberate contact. However, not all snakebites result in poisonings. Treatment: Wash the snakebite with soap and water, apply suction using an extractor device without incising the wound if less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the initial bite and the person who has been bitten is more than 1 hour from medical attention. Apply a constricting band above the bite if less than 30 minutes have passed from the initial bite. Wrap the band tight enough to slow circulation but not to stop pulses. Seek help.Swelling, burning, and pain at the site of the bite may be severe, with tissue breakdown occurring around the bite. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, thick tongue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, numbness, and tingling around the mouth.

Blisters: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area with water (not ice) within 30 seconds. Apply clean bandage or mole skin. Do not pop blisters! Painful red area turns white when touchedFirst Aid

4 Stings: A sting or bite injects venom composed of proteins and other substances that may trigger an allergic reaction in the victim. Treatment: If there is only redness and pain at the site of the bite, application of ice is adequate treatment. Clean the area with soap and water to remove contaminated particles left behind by some insects (such as mosquitoes). Refrain from scratching because this may cause the skin to break down and an infection to form.Most bites and stings result in pain, swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area. Severe reaction include hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes. Tick bites: Second only to mosquitoes as vectors (carriers) of human disease. Treatment: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants cinched at the ankle or tucked into the boots or socks. If attached, using rounded tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to theskin surface, and then pull with slow steady pressure in a direction away from the skin. Redness, itching, and swellingLymes Disease: The hallmark target lesion, a red circular rash with a pale center, occurs at the site of the bite within 2-20 days after the bite in 60-80% of cases. The rash may be accompanied by fatigue, headache, joint aches, and other flulike symptoms.First Aid

5First Aid Altitude sickness : Altitude sickness is brought on by the combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concentration that occur at high altitudes. The chance of getting altitude sickness increases the faster a person climbs to a high altitude. How severe the symptoms are also depends on this factor, as well as how hard the person pushes (exerts) himself or herself. People who normally live at or near sea level are more prone to altitude sickness. Treatment: The main form of treatment for all forms of mountain sickness is

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