Chapter 3 writing better sentences

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  • 1.Writing Better Sentences
    Grade 10

2. Writing Better Sentences
In this chapter you will learn to write better sentences by choosing better words. Better sentences will help your readers understand your ideas quickly and easily. Words that are carefully chosen move your writing in the right direction. Specific words add interest to this plain sentence:
I rode the bus to school.
On Saturday, I rode the early bus to art school.
The added words give details. They state the idea more clearly. As you read this chapter, you will learn to use nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases in your sentences
3. Goals for Learning
To replace nouns with pronouns
To use plural and possessive nouns correctly
To improve sentences by adding adjectives and adverbs
To use adjectives and adverbs to make comparisons
To use prepositional phrases in sentences
4. Key Vocabulary Words
Antecedent The noun that a pronoun replaces
Masculine Relating to males
Feminine Relating to females
Gender Masculine or feminine
Possessive noun A word that shows ownership or a relationship between two things
Personal pronoun A pronoun that refers to a person or a thing
5. Key Vocabulary Words
Apostrophe () A punctuation mark that you use to show a noun is possessive
Adjective A word that describes a noun or pronoun
Thesaurus A book that lists words and their synonyms
Synonym A word that has the same meaning as another word
Adverb A word that answers questions about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; it tells when, how, how often, where, or to what degree
6. Key Vocabulary Words
Positive form The form of an adjective or adverb that you use to describe one person or thing
Comparative form The form of an adjective or adverb that you use to compare two people or things; formed by adding erto the positive form or by adding the word more
Superlative form A form of an adjective or adverb that you use to compare three or more people or things; formed by adding estto the positive form or by adding the word most
Prepositional phrase A group of words made up of a preposition and a noun or pronoun; it works like an adjective or an adverb in a sentence
Preposition A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun (its object) and other words in a sentence
7. Replacing Nouns with Pronouns
Lesson 3-1
8. Objectives
To use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences
To identify the antecedent of a pronoun
To recognize the gender of a noun or pronoun
To identify singular and plural nouns and pronouns
9. Replacing Nouns with Pronouns
When you speak or write, you use nouns to name people, places, things, and ideas. It would be awkward to use the same noun several times in a sentence. Instead, you use a pronoun. A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence. An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun replaces.
EXAMPLE 1
Amber and Ambers mother go to pottery class.
Amber and her mother go to pottery class.
The pronoun her replaces Ambers. The antecedent is Ambers.
10. Replacing Nouns with Pronouns
You cannot use a pronoun until you have identified the noun. If there is no antecedent, the listener or reader will not know who or what you are talking about.
EXAMPLE 2
No Antecedent GivenBrandon saw it yesterday.(saw what?)
Antecedent GivenBrandon saw the movie yesterday. He liked it.
In the second sentence, you know what Brandon saw. The pronoun it has an antecedent. The antecedent is movie. The pronoun is not always in the same sentence as the antecedent.
11. Replacing Nouns with Pronouns
There are two rules to remember:
Rule 1 A pronoun must have an antecedent.
Rule 2 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent.
12. Practice A
Find the antecedent for each pronoun in bold. Write the pronoun and its antecedent on your paper.
Derek read about a national park in Kentucky. It is called Mammoth Cave.
I would like to see this cave, he said.
Tell me about it, Brandon said.
A river runs through the caves lowest level, Derek told him.
We should plan to visit this cave, Brandon said.
13. Gender and Number
Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas. Some nouns that name people show gender. Gender tells if the noun is masculine or feminine. Masculine nouns refer to males. Feminine nouns refer to females. Some pronouns are also masculine or feminine.
EXAMPLE 3
MasculineBrandon, man, boy, uncle, father, he, him, his
FeminineSonia, woman, girl, aunt, mother, she, her, hers
No Gendertable, mountain, city, pencil, it, they
14. Gender and Number
Rule 3 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender.
EXAMPLE 4
Derek went to the movies. He saw a comedy.
Amber has a dog named Rex. She loves that dog!
The bell rang. It signaled that class had begun.
15. Gender and Number
Replace plural nouns with they, them, or their. It does not matter whether the noun is a group of men, women, or things.
EXAMPLE 5
Ten families came. They brought their own food.
The store is open now. It stays open all night.
16. Practice B
Change the words in bold to pronouns. Write the new sentence on your paper.
Amber and Sonia went to Amber and Sonias class.
Ms. Ruiz had given Ms. Ruizs class an assignment.
Did everyone do the assignment? asked Ms. Ruiz.
Amber did, Sonia said. Derek has Dereks work, too.
Arent Amber and Derek wonderful, laughed Luis.
17. Gender and Number
Rule 4 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun is singular. If the antecedent is plural, the pronoun is plural.
Singular Pronouns:I, you, he, she, it
Plural Pronouns:we, you, they
18. Practice C
In each sentence, a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent. Write each sentence correctly on your paper.
Springfield has a park that their people love.
The park is off Main Street. They are behind the pool.
Three fields are there. It is for playing soccer.
The coaches are nice, and everyone likes it.
Each team should bring their own equipment.
19. Subject, Object, or Possessive Noun
Nouns have different purposes in sentences. The pronoun that replaces a noun depends on the nouns purpose. You can use a noun as a subject or an object. You can also use the possessive form of a noun. A possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship between two things.
EXAMPLE 6
SubjectSonia enjoys music.She enjoys music.
ObjectAmber e-mailed Sonia.Amber e-mailed her.
PossessiveThe violin is Sonias.The violin is hers.
20. Subject, Object, or Possessive Noun
The table below lists personal pronouns. A personal pronoun refers to a person or a thing. Use the table to find the correct pronoun to replace a noun. A pronoun that replaces a possessive noun is called a possessive pronoun.
21. Practice D
Decide which pronoun completes each sentence. Refer to the table above. Write the new sentence on your paper.
Derek and Brandon are friends. ____ enjoy soccer.
What time should ____ leave? asked Brandon.
What time is good for ____? Derek replied.
The coach told ____ to be at the field at 6:00.
____ likes to start practice on time.
22. Lesson 3-1 Review
Replace the noun in bold with the correct pronoun. Write the new sentence on your paper.
Until Derek was a junior in high school, Derek did not study enough.
Amber told Derek to study harder to get better grades.
Amber told him the work was worthwhile.
Derek found a quiet place where Derek like to study.
With all of these effort, Dereks grades improved a lot.
23. Lesson 3-1 Review
Decide which pronoun completes each sentence. Write the sentence on your paper.
Derek and Brandon live in Springfield. ____ like their town.
Derek and ____ family have lived there for many years.
Sonia Moreno enjoys the violin. She plays ____ in the orchestra.
Amber, Derek, and Brandon love soccer. ____ play as much as possible.
Sonias cousin Luis is fun to be around. ____ is always telling jokes.
24. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
Lesson 3-2
25. Objectives
To identify possessive nouns and plural nouns
To write possessive nouns and pronouns correctly
26. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
People often confuse the possessive and plural forms of a noun because they sound alike. A possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship between two things. Always use an apostrophe () when you write a possessive noun.
EXAMPLE 1
Plural NounPossessive Noun
The members meet here.A members house is nearby.
My cousins live in Toronto.My cousins house is brick.
27. Practice A
Decide if each noun in bold is plural or possessive. Write plural or possessive on your paper.
Both teams met at the stadium.
Where is the poodles leash?
Everyone in Elizas class liked learning Spanish.
These are my running shoes.
Californias weather is usually warm.
28. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
Here are the rules for writing possessive nouns:
Rule 1 Make a singular noun possessive by adding s.
EXAMPLE 2
Brandons book is gone.
Ms. Ruizs class meets in the morning.
The principals office is a busy place.
29. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
Rule 2 Make a plural noun possessive by adding only an apostrophe.
EXAMPLE 3
The students papers are not finished.
The boys locker room needs to be cleaned.
Both cities problems are the same.
30. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
Rule 3 If a plural noun does not end in s, add an s after the apostrophe.
EXAMPLE 4
Peoples opinions about this vary.
Our childrens jackets still fit them.
The womens team is practicing.
31. Practice B
Decide whether each bold possessive noun is singular or plural. Write singular or plural on your paper.
Brandons room is painted green.
What time is the teachers meeting?
The students answered the teachers questions.
Mens shirts are on sale.
The dancers feet hurt.
32. Using Plural and Possessive Nouns
A possessive pronoun does not have an apostrophe.
EXAMPLE 5
The dogs bone is buried.Its bone is buried.
I love Brandons house.I love his house.
Amber and Sonias friend came.Their friend came.
33. Practice C
Replace each bold possessive noun with the correct possessive pronoun. Write the new sentence on your paper.
Where are Dereks running shoes?
Brandon looked everywhere for Ambers car keys.
The players equipment was scattered everywhere.
Rex lost Rexs tennis ball.
Luiss and Sonias mothers are sisters.
34. Practice D
Write each sentence on your paper. Add the correct possessive pronoun.
After school, Derek goes to ____ job at the gas station.
It is a good job, and the workers like ____ boss.
Ms. Lenz started ____ business five years ago.
She has six employees on ____ staff.
The station is open late. ____ closing time is 10 PM.
35. Practice E
Read each pair of nouns. The first one is singular, and the second one is plural. Write the possessive form of each word on your paper.
Example:loaf, loaves
Answer:loafs, loaves
child, children
man, men
family, families
shelf, shelves
goose, geese
36. Lesson 3-2 Review
Each sentence has a mistake in the use of possessive and plural nouns. Write the sentence correctly on your paper.
The Tuckers home is on Third Street.
Both teams were ready for the big event.
Childrens toys were on the floor.
My neighbors cat climbed a tree.
The fire department brought some ladders.
37. Lesson 3-2 Review
Replace each possessive noun in bold with the correct possessive pronoun. Write the new sentence.
Ambers dog Rex chased her neighbors cat up a tree.
The cats fur stood on end.
Derek heard the cats meowing from across the street.
Mrs. Chin is Amber and her mothers neighbor.
The fire department will rescue Mrs. Chins cat.
38. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
Lesson 3-3
39. Objectives
To use adjectives and adverbs in sentences
To choose specific adjectives and adverbs
To know the purpose of a thesaurus
40. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective tells how many, what kind, or which ones. Look at the adjectives in Example 1. Thing about the question each adjective answers.
EXAMPLE 1
How Many?one book, few athletes, three flowers
What Kind?heavy book, strong athletes, purple flowers
Which Ones?Mias book, those athletes, other flowers
Mias is the possessive form of Mia. A possessive noun act as an adjective.
41. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives add details to sentences. Adjectives often appear in front of the words they describe.
EXAMPLE 2
The teenager ate a plate of food in gulps.
The hungry teenager ate a huge plate of hot food in four gulps.
42. Practice A
The nouns in each sentence are in bold. Write the sentence again. Add an adjective for each noun.
The family planted a tree in the yard.
In class, the girl did a somersault.
Sonia likes apples with peanut butter on them.
The man ate the sandwich.
The dog ate a bowl of food.
43. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
Help your readers form sharp pictures by using specific adjectives. Specific means exact or detailed. Avoid vague adjectives such as good, nice, bad, and pretty. Vague means general.
EXAMPLE 3
VagueSpecific
It was a nice day.It was a sunny, breezy day.
The fruit tasted good.The fruit tasted juicy and fresh.
44. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
A thesaurus is a book that lists words and their synonyms. A synonym is a word with the same meaning as another word. A thesaurus can help you find more specific words to replace a vague word.Choose the synonym that has the meaning you want.
EXAMPLE 4
VagueMore Specific Synonyms for Bad
a bad stormdangerous, threatening, severe
a bad dogmischievous, stubborn, vicious
a bad tastesickening, bitter, sour
45. Practice B
Replace each adjective in bold with a more specific one. Use a thesaurus if possible. Write the new sentence on your paper. Use your imagination!
My best friend is nice.
The sky looks nice.
Write a good sentence.
The team had a bad game.
Those flowers are pretty.
46. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
An adverb tells more about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs often give details about actions. An adverb can tell when, how, how often, or where. Look at the adverbs in Example 5. Thing about the questions each adverb answers.
EXAMPLE 5
When?Today we will shop early and eat later.
How?Read slowly and carefully. Write clearly.
How Often?Fees are paid weekly. Check in daily.
Where?Put your umbrella there. We will go outside.
47. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
Each adverb in Example 5 tells more about a verb. Adverbs also answer questions about an adjective or another adverb. Such adverbs tell about degree.
EXAMPLE 6
To What Degree?Amber was extremely worried. Rex ran too quickly. He was almost lost.
48. Practice C
Each adverb is in bold. Decide what question each adverb answers. Write one of these choices on your paper: when, how, how often, where, or to what degree.
Immediately, the door slammed shit.
The bell rings hourly.
That group is especially busy.
The baby smiled happily.
We looked everywhere for the keys.
49. Adding Adjectives and Adverbs
You can add variety to sentences by moving adverbs around. Notice the adverb in the sentences in Example 7.
EXAMPLE 7
Turtles oftenmove slowly.
Often, turtles move slowly.
Turtles move slowly, often.
50. Practice D
Find the adverb in each...

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