Blue corridor

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  • 1. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPEBLUE CORRIDOR PROJECTUNITED NATIONS

2. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPEWorking Party on Gas Inland Transport Committee BLUE CORRIDOR PROJECTon the use of natural gas as a motor fuel in internationalfreight and passenger traffic Final Report of the Task ForceUNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva2003 3. NOTEThe designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do notimply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the secretariat of the UnitedNations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities,or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect theviews of the United Nations Secretariat.ENERGY/2003/8Copyright United Nations, 2003 All rights reservedPrinted at United Nations, Geneva (Switzerland) 4. FOREWORDThe recent structural changes in east European countries and their transition to a marketeconomy and the integration of some of these into the European Union have significantlyincreased the volume of motor vehicle traffic throughout the European continent. The volumeof international freight and passenger traffic will continue to increase in line with thesubstantial growth and expansion of transnational corporations as well as the fitting-out ofvehicle fleets with modern tractor-trailer units and coaches designed for international travelwhich offer enhanced carrying capacity and operational features.The rapid increase in vehicle numbers has resulted in unacceptable levels of atmosphericpollution. In large cities, the transport share of air pollution represents up to 60-80% of alltoxic atmospheric emissions, and with modern technologies it is quite difficult to achievefurther substantial reductions in emissions from petrol and diesel engines. The substitution ofalternative forms of fuel (especially gas) for petrol and diesel could play a significant role incutting emissions.From the social point of view the implementation of the Blue Corridor project could not onlylead to enhanced development of infrastructure along the corridors, but could also expand thegas market, improve the health and living conditions of populations and create new jobs.The proposed Blue Corridor Project has been conceived to meet the above challenges and thenecessary preconditions for its implementation already exist. Many countries in the worldhave their own ambitious programmes for the development of transport powered byalternative fuels and especially by natural gas. The European Union has also put forward aproposal to promote the wide use of alternative fuels in motor transport by replacingpetroleum fuel use in the transport sector by 20% alternative fuels by the year 2020.This report is the result of collective work done by the Task Force, composed of experts fromboth the gas and transport sectors of UNECE member countries, as well as from a number ofinternational and non-governmental organizations.The ECE secretariat wishes to express its gratitude to all experts, companies andorganizations who support the Blue Corridor project and have contributed to the preparationof this report.Brigita SchmgnerovExecutive Secretary andUnited Nations Under-Secretary General iii 5. ContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY.......................................................................................................................................1ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................................................................21. BACKGROUND....................................................................................................................................................42. NATURAL GAS VEHICLES (NGV) DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE AND WORLDWIDE ...................63. BENEFITS OF NGVS IN COMPARISON WITH VEHICLES USING TRADITIONAL FUELS ...........8 3.1 ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND GLOBAL WARMING...........................................................................................8 3.2 ECONOMICS, MARKETING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES ....................................................................................12 3.3 LIQUFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) FUEL ..........................................................................................................13 3.4 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ..................................................................................................................................144. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT CORRIDORS ...............................................................................................18 4.1 TRANSPORT CORRIDOR MOSCOW MINSK WARSAW BERLIN ...............................................................19 4.2 TRANSPORT CORRIDOR BERLIN ROME .......................................................................................................21 4.3 TRANSPORT CORRIDOR HELSINKI MOSCOW AND AGGREGATE DATA FOR THE THREE PILOT CORRIDORS ...................................................................................................................................................255. PROJECT ECONOMICS - INVESTMENTS AND RETURNS...................................................................286. CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................................................................................28 6.1 BENEFITS AND EXISTING PREREQUISITES ......................................................................................................28 6.2 POTENTIAL STAKEHOLDERS OF THE PROJECT................................................................................................29 6.3 REPLICABILITY ..............................................................................................................................................29 6.4 CHALLENGES .................................................................................................................................................30 6.5 FUTURE STEPS................................................................................................................................................30ANNEXES ................................................................................................................................................................32 ANNEX 1. DYNAMICS OF NGV DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE .................................................................................32 ANNEX 2. PILOT BLUE CORRIDORS. ESTIMATED INVESTMENT AND RETURNS ...................................................33 ANNEX 3. THE BLUE CORRIDOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL ..................................................34 ANNEX 4. ROUTE OF THE CORRIDOR MOSCOW MINSK WARSAW - BERLIN ..................................................35 ANNEX 5. ROUTE OF THE CORRIDOR BERLIN ROME .........................................................................................36 ANNEX 6. ROUTE OF THE CORRIDOR HELSINKI ST.PETERSBURG - MOSCOW ...................................................37LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................................................... TABLE 1. NGV LEADERS ........................................................................................................................................6 TABLE 2. ADDITIONAL CASES OF DISEASE OR DAYS OFF WORK DUE TO AIR POLLUTION .......................................9 TABLE 3. COSTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO POLLUTION ..................................................................................................10 TABLE 4. REDUCTION COEFFICIENTS..............................................................................................................11 TABLE 5. SPECIFIC AND REDUCED TO CO EXHAUST EMISSIONS (MRED), KG PER TONNE OF FUEL USED ............11 TABLE 6. MOTOR-FUEL PRICES IN DIFFERENT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ................................................................13 TABLE 7. REDUCED TO CO HARMFUL EXHAUST EMISSIONS FOR HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES .................................19 TABLE 8. EXHAUST HARMFUL EMISSIONS BY HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL AND CNG VEHICLES ..................................19 TABLE 9. MOSCOW BERLIN. AGGREGATE DATA. FORECAST FOR 2010. ..........................................................20 TABLE 10. CNG FUELLING STATIONS ALONG THE CORRIDOR MOSCOW - BERLIN .............................................21 TABLE 11. CZECH REPUBLIC EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORT.............................................................................24 TABLE 12. EXPECTED FUEL COST SAVINGS ..........................................................................................................26 TABLE 13. AGGREGATE REDUCTION OF HARMFUL EMISSIONS (CO EQUIVALENT) .............................................27 TABLE 14. DIESEL FUEL TO BE REPLACED BY NATURAL GAS ...............................................................................27 TABLE 15. REQUIRED INVESTMENTS ....................................................................................................................28 v 6. LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................................................... FIGURE 1. COMPARATIVE FIGURES FOR EXHAUST EMISSIONS, KG PER TONNE OF FUEL USED .............................11 FIGURE 2. FUEL COST ...........................................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 3. FORECAST OF OIL AND GAS EXPLORED RESERVES DEPLETION IN MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES .....15 FIGURE 4. IGNITION TEMPERATURE OF VARIOUS KINDS OF FUEL ( ) ..............................................................16 FIGURE 5. DESTRUCTION PROBABILITY OF THE CAR BODY ...............................................