The Skeleton is divided into 2 parts:
The Axial Skeleton &
The Appendicular Skeleton
The Axial Skeleton
The Appendicular Skeleton
Bone Surface MarkingsThe surfaces of bones have various
structural features adapted to specific functions.
1. Depressions and openings:a. Foramen – opening through which blood vessels, nerves and ligaments pass.b. Meatus – tubelike channel extending within a bone.c. Fossa – A shallow depression in or on a bone.
2. Processes that form joints:
a. Condyle – A large rounded prominence
that forms a joint.b. Head – A rounded projection that
forms a joint.c. Facet – A smooth, flat articular surface
Processes for attachment:1. Tuberosity – A large, rounded
projection usually with a rough surface (deltoid of humerus).
2. Spine – A sharp, slender projection (spinous process of vertebrae).
3. Trochanter – A large, blunt projection found only on the femur.
4. Crest – A prominent border or ridge (iliac of crest of hip bone).
• A FRACTURE MEANS THAT A BONE HAS BEEN CRACKED OR BROKEN.
• A Bone Fracture may be a simple crack, or the bone may actually break into two or more pieces
• A. SIMPLE (CLOSED) - The broken parts are still in normal anatomical position; surrounding tissue damage is minimal (skin is not pierced).
• B. COMPOUND (OPEN) - The broken end of a bone has been MOVED, and it Pierces the Skin; there may be extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels, nerves, and muscles.
• C. GREENSTICK - The Bone Splits LONGITUDINALLY (BREAKS ALONG THE LONG AXIS OF THE BONE). The bones of children contain more collagen than do adults bones and tend to Splinter rather than break completely.
• D. COMMINUTED - Two or more intersecting breaks create several bone fragments.
• E. TRANSVERSE FRACTURE- meaning straight across. The two ends tend to stay together i.e. it's
stable. • F. SPONTANEOUS (PATHOLOGIC) - A bone breaks
without apparent trauma; may accompany bone disorders such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
What is the difference between an open and closed fracture?
Open means that the the skin around the broken bone has split open.
Closed means the skin is intact over the fracture.
This difference is important because open fractures need antibiotic cover.
Broken bone symptoms…
>Exquisite pain when you move or touch the broken area. >Bruising of the skin over the area of the break as in A above. >Shortening of the limb. Snapping sound at injury. >Unable to support your weight standing in fractures from the waist down. >Something hard pushing up the skin or through it.
The two ends tend to stay together and the fracture is straight across.
Broken ends of bone pierce the skin.
Greenstick Comminuted• A greenstick fracture refers to a fracture where one side of the bone breaks from a
distracting force while the other side bends but stays intact (as what happens to a green, that is young, stick when you try to break it).
Bone breaks into several fragements
The skin has not been penetrated and broken bones are still incorrect anatomical position.
Due to twisting of bone, the break is ragged.
Fracture Repair (Manipulation):
Fracture Manipulation Explained:• Most of the time when a bone breaks the two ends move past or away
from each other. This is because of the force that caused the damage pushing around the bones and because the muscles attached to the bones are pulling them away.
• Bone FRACTURE MANIPULATION means tugging on the bones until they snap back into place. This technique is used in limb fractures like your leg or arm where the two ends are not badly shattered, just out of alignment.
• While you're lying down, your bone doctor will stand at one end of the broken bone and an assistant at the other. They will then pull in a straight line until they feel the bones snap back in place or can see that the protruding bone ends have flattened. Of course you won't be howling through this in pain because you'll be sedated through chemicals given by an IV line or injection.
• Once the bone doctor is happy with the flow of the bone, they'll then wrap a cast around it to hold it in place and send you for a new xray to compare with the first to make sure the ends are holding.
Times for bones to heal…Bone Broken Time for it to Heal
Collar bone 3-8 weeks
Scapula - shoulder blade 3 weeks
Upper arm 4 weeks
Lower arm 6 weeks
Wrist 3 - 8 weeks
Fingers 3 weeks
Pelvis 2 - 6 weeks
Upper leg 12 weeks
Knee 3 weeks
Lower leg 6-8 weeks
Ankle 6 weeks
Foot 3 - 12 weeks
Toes 3 weeks
Medical Scenerio I:
Helen grew up on a farm in the Midwest. She drank lots of milk as a child. She also walked a lot. After graduating from high
school, she got married and found a job. Family and work kept her too busy to exercise. Helen went through menopause at age
47. At age 76, she was enjoying retirement—traveling and working in her garden. But then she slipped on a small rug in
her kitchen and broke her hip. After Helen recovered, she needed a cane to walk, and gardening was a lot harder to
Osteoporosis !!!• Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the
point where they break easily—most often bones in the hip, backbone (spine), and wrist. Osteoporosis is called the “silent disease”—you may not notice any changes until a bone breaks. But your bones have been losing strength for many years.
Who gets osteoporosis?• Millions of Americans have osteoporosis.• While it mainly affects women, 2 million men also have the
disease.• It is most common in Asian and White women.
Good bone Deteriorating bone
Osteosaroma – Bone Cancer
Osteosarcoma usually occurs in the femur or around the
knee and the tibia, or around the shoulder. The typical
patient is between 20-25 and the symptoms include deep, ill-defined pain and swelling
in the area of the tumor. An x-ray typically shows the tumor and a CAT scan is used to look
for metastases, or to see if the cancer is spreading. A
biopsy is then performed and the treatment plan is
created. Chemotherapy is common and surgery to remove the tumorous materials is regular.