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The Axial Skeleton 1

The Axial Skeleton 1. Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton Pectoral and pelvic girdles Upper and lower

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Page 1: The Axial Skeleton 1. Axial skeleton  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton  Pectoral and pelvic girdles  Upper and lower

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The Axial Skeleton

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Axial skeletonSkullVertebral columnThoracic cage

Appendicular skeletonPectoral and pelvic girdlesUpper and lower limbs

Skeletal system includes both:

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The Skull

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The cranium

Cranial vault or calvariaSuperior, lateral, and posterior walls of the

skullCranial floor or base

Anterior fossaMiddle fossaPosterior fossa

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Consists of the cranium and the bones of the face

SuturesLambdoid-between occipital and parietal

bonesCoronal-between parietal and frontal bonesSagittal-between parietal bonesSquamous-between parietal and temporal

bones

The skull

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The skull

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The skull

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The skull

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one occipital boneforamen magnum

two parietal bonesone frontal bone

frontal sinusesglabella

Cranial Bones

two temporal bonesauditory ossicles

one sphenoidone ethmoid

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The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull

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The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull

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The Occipital and Parietal Bones

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Occipital and Parietal Bones

Occipital boneForamen magnumOccipital condyleExternal occipital protuberance

Parietal boneFrontal bone

Supraorbital foramenGlabella

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Frontal bone

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Temporal bone

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Temporal bone

Squamous sutureZygomatic process

Zygomatic archMandibular fossaExternal auditory meatusStyloid process

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Temporal bone is divided in regions

Mastoid processMastoiditisMeningitis

Stylomastoid foramenPassage for cranial nerve VII

Internal acustic meatusPassage for cranial nerves VII and VIII

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The Sphenoid

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Sphenoid bone

Greater wingsSella turcica

For the pituitary gland

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The Ethmoid

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Ethmoid bone

Crista galliAttachment of the dura mater

Cribiform platePassage of olfactory nerves

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Ethmoid bone

Perpendicular plateForms the superior part of the nasal septum

Superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates)Covered by mucosaWarms and humidifies the air

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Maxillary bonesMandible Palatine bonesNasal bonesVomer

Facial bones

Inferior nasal conchaeZygomatic bonesLacrimal bones

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Alveolar margimPalatine process- anterior hard palateIncisive fossa- passage for nerves and blood

vessels

Maxillae

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Maxillary bone

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Zygomatic bonearticulates with zygomatic process of temporal

bone forming the zygomatic arch

Vomer, Zygomatic and Lacrimal bones

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Facial bones

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Body- horizontal portionRamus-vertical portionMandibular condyle- articulates with temporal

boneCoronoid processAngle Alveolar margin- with sockets for the teethMandibular foramen – site of Novocain

injection

Mandible

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The mandible

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The Mandible and Hyoid Bones

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Cranial Foramens to identify

External view:Supraorbital foramen-for blood vessels and

nervesInfraorbital foramen-blood vessels and

nervesMental foramen-blood vessels and nervesStylomastoid foramen- nerve VIICarotid canal-for carotid arteryExternal auditory meatus-leads to eardrumIncisive fossa-for blood vessels and nerves

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Cranial Foramens to identify

Internal viewOptic canal -for optic nerveSuperior and inferior orbital fissure“ROS”

Rotundum- for a branch of VOvale-for a branch of VSpinosum-for middle meningeal artery

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Cranial Foramens to identify

Foramen lacerum -internal carotidJugular foramen -for jugular vein; IX, X,XI

cranial nervesInternal acustic meatus -for VII,VIIIHypoglossal canal -for XIIForamen magnum -for spinal cord

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The Fetal Skeleton

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Fontanels

Anterior or frontal Palpable for the first 1 ½ to 2 years of age

Posterior of occipitalCloses by the end of the first year of age

MastoidCloses by the end of the first year of age

SphenoidCloses by the end of the first year of age

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Cranial bones

FrontalIt is parted

Temporal It is incompletely ossified

Presence of ossification centersConical protusions on the cranial bones

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The Vertebral Column

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7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae5 sacrum fused vetebrae 3-5 fused coccyx vertebrae

Vertebral column

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Vertebral column

Intervertebral discs- pads of fibrocartilage between the vertebraeNucleus pulposus- central soft regionAnnulus fibrosus- outer ring. Collagen fibersHerniated disc- protusion of the nucleus

pulposus

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Spinal curvatures

Figure 7.16

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Four spinal curves- posterior viewPrimary curvatures – present at

birth Thoracic - convex Sacral- convex

Secondary curvatures – develops after birthCervical- concaveLumbar- concave

Spinal curvatures

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Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine

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Body- rounded portion. Anterior part Vertebral Foramen-for the spinal cordTransverse processSpinous process-single and posteriorIntervertebral foramina-it is seen when 2

vertebras are put together. Passage of the spinal nerves

Structure of a typical vertebra

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Transverse foraminas- only present in cervical vertebrae

Atlas or C1No bodyJoin with the head and provides for range of

motion (when you nod yes)

Cervical vertebra

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Cervical vertebra

Axis or C2Odontoid process or dens-allows rotation of

the head (when you nod no)

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Thoracic vertebrae

Spinous process-long and downwardRib facet – for articulation with 1 rib

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Massive bodyShort and thick and more horizontal spinous

processesNo rib facetsNo transverse foramemSuperior and inferior articular processes

Lumbar vertebrae

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Medial sacral crest-remnant of the spinous processes

Alae- formed by fusion of the transverse processes. It articulates with the hip bones

Sacral foramina- passage for blood vessels and nerves

Sacral canal- continuation of the verterbral canal

Sacrum

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Sacrum and coccyx

Sacral hiatus-inferior opening of the sacral canal

Sacral promontory- rim on the anterior and superior part of the sacrum

Coccyx Attached to the sacrum by ligaments

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SternumManubrium-articulates with the clavicleBody Xiphoid process-inferior end. Made of

hyaline cartilage in children and is ossified in adults

Jugular notchSternal angle-between the body and the

manubrium

The bony thorax

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Tubercle – is inferiorCostal groove –depression along the inferior

sideSternal end-articulates with sternum

The ribs

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True Ribs 1-7 Attached to the sternum through their own

cartilage

Types of ribs

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False8-12 8-10 are vertebrochondral ribs

Attaches to the sternum indireclty through the cartilage of the C7

11-12 are floating ribsNo attachment to the sternum

Types of ribs