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SEHS Topic 1: Anatomy

SEHS Topic 1: Anatomy. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton: skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column: cervical -7;

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SEHS Topic 1: Anatomy

Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton

• Axial skeleton: • skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column:

cervical -7; thoracic – 12;lumbar – 5; sacral – 5 (fused as 1); coccyx – 4 (fused as 1)

• Appendicular skeleton:• Pectoral girdle (scapulae and clavicles); humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges• Pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis); femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges

Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton in terms of function• The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones along

the central axis of the human body. Primary function is protection. Of what? _________

• The appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones of the lower limbs and upper limbs. Primary function is locomotion.

State four types of bones

• Long

• Short

• Flat

• Irregular

Cont’d• Long: Typical bone type (ex. like a dog bone), long, straight + sometimes rounded ends.-----Ex. Humerus, Femur, Radius, Ulna, Tibia, Fibula, etc..

•Short; Very small bones in the hands and feet.-----Ex. Carpal and Tarsal bones.

•Irregular: Strange shape, doesn't really fit into another category.-----Ex. temporal bone, skull bones with facial features, etc...

•Flat: Protective bones that are smooth and flat-----Ex. Top of cranium, ribs, sternum, etc...

Draw and annotate the structure of a long bone

• Must include the:

• Epiphysis, spongy bone, articular cartilage, diaphysis, compact bone, bone marrow, marrow cavity, blood vessel, periosteum


Your turn – Draw one

Anatomical Terminology• **assume anatomical position:

Terminology• A. Superior: toward the head or upper part of a structure• Example: The head is superior to the shoulders.• • B. Inferior: away from the head or toward the lower part of a

structure• Example: The intestines are inferior to the lungs• • C. Anterior (also known as ventral): toward the front of the body• Example: The trachea is anterior to the esophagus.

• D. Posterior (also known as dorsal): toward the back of the body• Example: The esophagus is posterior to the trachea.

Terminology continued• E. Medial: locating a structure nearer to the midline of the body,

which divides the body into equal right and left halves.• Example: The ulna is medial to the radius. • F. Lateral: locating a structure further from the midline of the body• Example: The lungs are lateral to the heart.• • H. Proximal: nearer to the point of attachment of an appendage to

the trunk of the body• Example: The knee is proximal to the shin.• • I. Distal: farther from the point of attachment of an appendage to

the trunk of the body• Example: The elbow is distal the shoulder.•

Terminology cont’d

• J. Superficial: toward or on the surface of the body

• Example: The skin is superficial to the muscles.

• • K. Deep: away from the surface of the body.

Example: The ribs are deep to the skin

Using the skeleton below and the one in the classroom, properly use each of the following only:

• Inferior, superior, proximal, distal, medial, lateral, posterior, anterior

Anatomical Planes

• FRONTAL (or coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts

• MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into Right and Left parts

• HORIZONTAL separates the body into Superior and Inferior parts

• SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the median plane • After

Anatomical Planes continued

Outline the function of connective tissue

• What is connective tissue?

Connective tissue (CT) is a kind of biological tissue that supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body

All CT has three main components: cells, fibers, and extracellular matrices

Examples of connective tissue• Special connective - reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue,

cartilage, bone, and blood.

• IB will limit CT to understanding the function of :– Ligaments – attach bone to bone

- Cartilage – articular cartilage/is a type of cartilage found on many joint surfaces (aka hyaline cartilage)

- Tendons – attach muscle to bone

Define the term Joint

• A joint occurs where two or more bones articulate

• Types of joints:

Outline the features of a synovial joint• Must include articular cartilage, synovial

membrane, synovial fluid, bursae, meniscus, and articular capsule


• Function of:• Synovial Fluid – • Bursae – • Meniscus – • Ligaments – • Joint (articular) capsule –

LIST the different types of synovial joints