EXIIBKK UNIVERSITYOF CALIFORNIA
JOHN HENRY NASH LIBRARY SAN FRANCISCO
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIAROBERT GORDON SPRQUL, PRESIDENT.
MR.ANDMRS.MILTON S.RAVCECILY, VIRGINIA AND ROSALYN RAY
MODERN METHODS OF
THE PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY
MODERN METHODS OF
BOOK COMPOSITIONA TREATISE ON
TYPE-SETTING BY HAND AND BY MACHINEAND ON THE PROPER ARRANGEMENT
AND IMPOSITION OF PAGES
THEODORE LOW DE VINNE, A.M.n
NEW YORKTHE CENTURY CO.
Copyright, 1904, byTHEODORE Low DEVINNE
Published October, 190U
THE DEVINNE PRESS
i EQUIPMENT.Types . . . Stands . . . Cases . . . Case-racks.
ii EQUIPMENT 39
Galleys and galley-racks . . . Compositors' implementsBrass rules and cases for labor-saving rule and leadsDashes and braces . . . Leads . . . Furniture of woodand of metal . . . Furniture - racks . . . Quotations andelectrotype guards.
in COMPOSITION 75
Time-work and piece-work . . < Customary routine onbook-work . . . Justification . . . Spacing and leadingDistribution . . . Composition by hand and machineProper methods of hahd-work . . . Recent mannerisms.
iv COMPOSITION OF BOOKS Ill
Title-page . . . Preface matter . . . Chapter headingsand synopsis . . . Subheadings . . . Extracts . . . Notesand illustrations . . . Running titles and paging athead or at foot . . . Poetry . . . Appendix and indexInitials . . . Head-bands, etc.
v DIFFICULT COMPOSITION 171
Algebra . . . Tables and table-work . . . Music andmusic cases . . . Genealogies.
vi ContentsChapter Page
vi FOREIGN LANGUAGES ....... 231Accents . . . Greek . . . Hebrew . . . German.
vii MAKING UP 255The running title . . . Signatures . . . Notes, tables,extracts, and illustrations.
Stones and chases . . . Exact adjustment of mar-gins . . . Locking up ... Taking proofs . . . Correc-tions . . . Clearing away.
ix IMPOSITION 331
Elementary principles . . . Schemes for various forms'from two and four to one hundred and twenty-eightpages . . . Inset forms . . . Oblong pages . . . The leaf-let . . . Small pamphlets . . . New method of collatingFolding-machines . . . Concluding remarks.
x MACHINE-COMPOSITION 397
Review of early methods . . . General organizationAssembling and keyboard mechanisms . . . Learningto operate . . . Management of the linotype machineTemperature of metal . . . Treatment of matrices andof space-bands . . . The melting-pot, mould, and diskThe assembling elevator . . . Correct keyboard fin-gering.
INA BOOK previously published the literary
side of type-setting was treated under thetitle of Correct Composition. This book, itsintended supplement, will be confined to com-ments upon the mechanical methods of BookComposition.In ordinary conversation this phrase is un-
discriminatingly applied to composed typesin small pages, whether plain or decorated, offour leaves or of forty volumes. So consid-ered, the subject seems almost limitless. Itmust be evident that there are too manykinds of books and too many fashions intype-setting to be thoroughly described in anordinary duodecimo.The book composition here to be treated is
that of the ordinary book of the establishedpublisher the plain book made to be usedand read more than to be decorated and ad-mired as an exhibit of typographical skill.As the plain book is always in most request,its construction should be the earlier study
of the young compositor, for whom this bookhas been prepared. To the buyer of a bookwho is also its reader, its value is in the im-portance, real or fancied, of its information.Next follows easily readable type, tastefullyarranged in orderly pages with proper mar-gins, clearly printed in strong black ink on
appropriate but unpretentious paper. En-
graved illustrations to explain the text, head-bands and tail-pieces of harmonious designthat close the staring gaps of chapter breaksand vary the monotony of print, here andthere letters or lines in a bright red, are someof a few permissible attractions ; but after allhas been done by the type-founder, paper-maker, designer, and printer, the great valueof the book is not in type or decoration, butin what the author has written.
Scant attention can be given to decoration.To describe with proper detail usual methodsof workmanship in the decorated book orpamphlet that is now in favor would be ahopeless task. A thick volume of facsimilesprinted in colors would be required for aninstructive exhibit of medieval and modernstyles of printing, but the book so preparedwould be of small service to the young com-positor. The decorated book is not a propermodel for every-day service. It might beharmful, for it presents suggestions of styles
or methods that are impracticable in anyprinting-house with a scant supply of typesor borders. Decoration is of doubtful valuewhen it diverts the eye from matter to man-ner, from the thought of the writer to theskill of the printer. The unavoidably dimin-ished performance of every experimental dec-orator with type, and the increased cost ofhis work, are other unpleasing consequences.No ornamental style now in vogue can beoffered as one of permanent favor, for fash-ions in type-setting are as fickle as fashionsin dress. To examine and compare the dif-ferent styles of decorative composition thatcame in and went out of vogue during everyten years of the last century is to be fore-warned that eccentricities of present popu-larity may be disliked in the near future.'
It may be that in my explanations I havebeen more minute than is customary in man-uals of printing. An expert compositor maysmile at the frequency of suggestions thathe does not need now, but there was a timewhen he did need them. Every master printerof experience will agree with me that theapprentice needs minute instruction, perhapsto reiteration, in the rudiments of printing.To space words evenly, to put proper blanksbetween lines of display, to make up matterin symmetrical pages and to impose them
for the convenience of pressmen and binders,may seem trifles to those compositors whorate speed higher than skill or good taste,but the remark of a great artist may herebe repeated, Trifles make perfection, and per-fection is not a trifle.The equipment of a book-printing house
with the new styles of cases and stands thatare required in modern practice has receivedas much attention as space allows, but thelist is incomplete, for new styles of merit are
increasing in number. There is a demand inevery printing-house for more compactnessin the stowage of materials, with a proper pro-vision for greater facility in their handling.As an aid to this object, suggestions havebeen made about new arrangements for leads,brass rules, furniture, and extra sorts of type.
There are chapters that claim the attentionof a mature compositor. Every book-print-ing house is required at times to providelines or paragraphs in the proper charactersof foreign languages, or to set bars of musicor formulas in algebra. To those who havelittle or no experience in the handling of the
strange types required, the information here
presented will be of service. In the compila-tion of this matter I have had many helpers,to whom I here renew acknowledgments andthanks.
Algebra, based upon an article in Lefevre'sGuide Pratique du Compositeur, was revisedand made clearer by Henry Burchard Fine,Ph.D., professor of mathematics at PrincetonUniversity.Music was specially written for this work
by Mr. James H. Martin of New York. Histreatise on this subject will prove a thoroughexplanation of a much-neglected departmentof composition.Greek has been revised by Benjamin E.
Smith, L.H.D., editor of the Century Dic-
tionary.Hebrew has been corrected by Mr. Frank
Horace Vizetelly, assistant editor of the Jew-ish Encyclopedia.These departments of book composition
are not common, but they are sure to appearoccasionally in ordinary copy, and every com-positor should be qualified to put them in typewith a reasonable approach to correctness.Machine-composition was written for this
work by Mr. Philip T. Dodge, president ofthe Mergenthaler Linotype Company.
Correct Keyboard Fingering was contrib-uted by Mr. John S. Thompson, instructor ofthe machine
-composition branch of the In-land Printer Technical School, and authorof a treatise of great value on The Mechanismof the Linotype.
MODERN METHODS OP
EQUIPMENTTypes . . . Stands . . . Cases . . . Case-racks
PRINTING-HOUSE that isfitted for the practice of onebranch only of printing, as forlaw cases, weekly newspapers,or plain reprints, does not needa large variety of faces or sizesof type, but when it is in-
tended that it shall be properly equipped for allkinds of book composition, large fonts of text typeson the bodies of 12- 11- 10- 8- and 6-point are indis-pensable. Types on 9- and 7-point bodies, not oftenrequired, may be provided in smaller fonts. Typeson smaller bodies and of still smaller fonts will be
2 A book-house needs many typesneeded for foot- and side-notes. The larger bodiesof 14- 18- and 24-point will be useful for the textsof quartos and larger sizes, or as letter of display.To this assortment must be added small fonts oftwo -line capital letters for title-pages and plaininitials varying in size from 8- to 72-point. Theremust be also types of bold face of many sizes, plainand condensed, for side- or subheadings ; galleys,lead