Typographic basics

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Guidelines for novice designers

Text of Typographic basics

  • 1. Typographical
  • 2. Font features Typography Cap Height Ascenders Descenders Baseline X-Height
  • 3. Character parts Typ-o-graf-e Axis Ear Hook Bar Counter Terminal Serif
  • 4. Letter form Hxg Hxg Hxg Hxg Ariel Times NR Geo Slab Hattenschweiler
  • 5. Kerning Inter-character spacing Time Unkerned type Time Kerned type TNT
  • 6. Tracking
  • 7. Leading (Line spacing) Leading refers to the space between lines. It can be tightened or expanded as needed to fill space. (1) Leading refers to the space between lines. It can be tightened or expanded as needed to fill space. (1.4) Leading refers to the space between lines. It can be tightened or expanded as needed to fill space. (1.25) Leading refers to the space between lines. It can be tightened or expanded as needed to fill space. (.8)
  • 8. Relationships Type is a building block Three types of relationships Concordant Conflicting Contrasting
  • 9. Concordant Use one font Use variations on that font Size Italic Bold Color Seen as calm, formal
  • 10. For example . . .
  • 11. Conflicting Use of two or more fonts that are similar (same family) Creates a visual dissonance Should be avoided
  • 12. For example . . .
  • 13. Contrast Strong contrast attracts Simple way to create interest Creates energy on a page May involve 2 or more fonts Requires careful planning
  • 14. For example . . .
  • 15. Oldstyle Diagonal stress Serifs on lowercase letters are slanted Moderate thick/thin transition in the stroke
  • 16. Oldstyle
  • 17. Modern Vertical stress Radical thick/thin transition in the stroke Serifs are thin and horizontal
  • 18. Modern
  • 19. Slab serif Serifs are horizontal and thick (slabs) Little or no thick/thin transition of contrast in the strokes Little vertical stress
  • 20. Slab serif
  • 21. Sans serif No stress because theres no thick/thinNo serifs No thick/thin transition in the strokes
  • 22. Sans serif
  • 23. Connected Script
  • 24. Unconnected Script
  • 25. Decorative
  • 26. Typographic samples
  • 27. Typography exists to honor content Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style