World History Chapter Five The Roman World Takes Shape

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  • World HistoryChapter FiveThe Roman World Takes Shape

  • GeographyRome is located on the Western side of Italy in the Mediterranean SeaItaly is not broken up with mountains like Greece isit lends itself to a growing population with a good climate and good soil

  • Early RomeLatin's settled in Italy along the Tiber riverAncestors of the RomansThey were herders and farmersRomulus and Remus Twin brothers founded Rome on seven hillsBrothers said to of divine origins from a Latin woman and the god Mars giving the Romans the idea they were divine

  • EtruscansLived in Italy along with the Latin'sLived north of RomeNot sure where they came from (Asia Minor, the Alps) but they controlled most of central ItalyRomans learned a lot from the EtruscansMerged their gods and goddesses

  • RepublicRomans defeated the Etruscans and drove them away in 509 B.C.Republic res publica that which belongs to the peoplePeople chose some of the officialsRomans believed this would stop an individual from gaining to much power

  • SenateSenate most powerful body of government in Rome300 members made up of Patricians landholding upper classSenators served for lifeSenators nominated two consuls every year to supervise the government and the militaryConsul could only serve one term

  • SenateConsuls had to approve each others decisionsRome had checks and balances. How?If war broke out then a dictator would be named by the senate Dictator would have complete control over the government for six monthsCincinnatus

  • PlebiansPlebians farmers, merchants, artisans, traders, bulk of the population, little influencePushed for more representation and won the right to elect their own officials called tribunesTribunes could veto block laws that could hurt the plebiansSenate eventually was opened to the PlebiansLaws of the Twelve Tables Plebians could appeal judgments of patrician judges

  • WomenCould own property, run businessesMost women worked at home, raising families, spinning, weavingPatrician women went to public baths, dined out, attended theater with husbands

  • ChildrenBoys and girls from upper and lower classes learned to read and writeGreeks were hired to tutor wealthy familiesRhetoric was an important skill taught to boys seeking a career in politics

  • ReligiousPolytheistic adapted from the GreeksMars god of warHad feasts and celebrations for the gods all throughout the yearMost joined in, creating a sense of unity and communityTemples all throughout Rome with statues of gods

  • Roman ArmySuccess of Rome was due to its great armyLegion basic unit of the Roman army 5,000 menCitizen-soldiers fought unpaid, supply own weapons like Greece had doneStarted receiving a stipend but largest reward was their share in the spoils after a victory

  • ArmyRoman citizens were raised with the values of loyalty, courage, and respect for authorityThis helped to make them good soldiersCommanders mixed rewards and punishmentsIf they performed well they were praised and given giftsIf they fled one of every ten men was put to death

  • Conquered PeopleTreated its enemies fairlyEnemies had to acknowledge Rome, pay taxes and supply soldiersCould continue to rule themselvesSome became full citizens or partial citizens let them marry Romans and trade in RomeRome posted soldiers all throughout the conquered lands built roads to connect territory