Madrid

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Madrid

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MadridMadridVilla de Madrid

Top left:Alcala Gate in Retiro area, Top middle:Campo del Moro Garden and Royal Palace in Bailen area, Top right:Madrid City Hall in Plaza de Cibeles, 2nd View of Alacala and Gran Via street, 3rd left:Prado Museum, 3rd middle:Statue of Bear and Madrono in Puerta del Sol Square, 3rd right:Cervantes Institute Foundation Headquarter in Alcala area, Bottom:View of Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral

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Motto: Fui sobre agua edificada, mis muros de fuego son. Esta es mi insignia y blasn ("On water I was built, my walls are made of fire. [1][2] This is my ensign and escutcheon") Nickname(s) : La capital, La Conventual, La capital del reino, Villa y Corte, la Villa, Los Madriles, MAD, Madrid City, Madrid Capital.

MadridLocation of Madrid within Spain

Madrid

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MadridMap of Madrid Coordinates: 4023N 343W Country Region Founded Government Type Body Mayor Area City Elevation Population (2011) City Rank Density Urban Metro Demonym 3,265,038 1st 5390/km2 (14,000/sqmi) 6,489,680 7,254,321 Madrilenian madrileo (m) madrilea (f) matritense CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) 2800128080 34 (Spain) + 91 (Madrid) Isidore the Laborer Virgin of Almudena www.munimadrid.es [4] 605.77km2 (233.89sqmi) 667m (2,188ft) Mayor-council Ayuntamiento de Madrid Ana Botella (PP) Spain Community of Madrid IX Century [3]

Time zone Summer(DST) Postal code Area code(s) Patron Saints

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Madrid (English /mdrd/, Spanish:[mai]) is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3million[5] and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.5 million. The

Madrid population of the great Madrid is calculated in 7.2 million.[6] It is the third-largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan area is the third-largest in the European Union after London and Paris.[7][8][9][10] The city spans a total of 604.3km2 (233.3sqmi).[11] The city is located on the Manzanares river in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and Len and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political centre of Spain.[12] The current mayor is Ana Botella from the People's Party (PP). The Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP[13] in the European Union and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.[14][15] Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe[16][17] and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Spanish companies, such as Telefnica, Iberia or Repsol. Madrid is the most touristic city of Spain, the third in the EU, the fourth-most touristic of the continent, and the seventh in the world according to Forbes. Is the 10th most livable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2010 index.[18][19] Madrid also ranks among the 12 greenest European cities in 2010.[20] Madrid is currently a Candidate City for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[21] Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (WTO), belonging to the United Nations Organization (UN), the SEGIB and the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI). It also hosts major international institutions regulators of Spanish: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundu). Madrid organizes fairs as FITUR,[22] ARCO,[23] SIMO TCI [24] and the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week.[25] While Madrid possesses a modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid; the Teatro Real (Royal theatre) with its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro Park, founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; a large number of National museums,[26] and the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum, the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofa, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which completes the shortcomings of the other two museums.[27] In the years the Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become the monument symbol of the city.[28][29][30]

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HistoryToponymThere are several theories regarding the origin of the name "Madrid". According to legend Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor (son of King Tyrrhenius of Tuscany and Mantua) and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria" ("land of bears" in Latin), because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, which, together with the strawberry tree (Spanish: madroo), have been the emblem of the city from the Middle Ages.[3]Alcal Street and the Metropolis Building

Madrid The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit (for *Materit or *Mageterit ?) comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, and means "Place of abundant water".[31] If the form is correct, it could be a Celtic place-name from ritu- 'ford' (Old Welsh rit, Welsh rhyd, Old Breton rit, Old Northern French roy) and a first element, that is not clearly identified *mageto derivation of magos 'field' 'plain' (Old Irish mag 'field', Breton ma 'place'), or matu 'bear", that could explain the Latin translation Ursalia.[32] Nevertheless, it is now commonly believed that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river. The name of this first village was "Matrice" (a reference to the river that crossed the settlement). Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, and as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who then ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor, also taking control of "Matrice". In the 7th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term " Mayra" (referencing water as a "trees" or "giver of life") and the Ibero-Roman suffix "it" that means "place". The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic.[33]

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Middle AgesAlthough the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times,[34][35] and there are archeological remains of a small Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa Mara de la Almudena[3][36] and two visigoth necropolises near Casa de campo and Tetan, the first historical certainty about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century,[37] Emir Muhammad I of Crdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares,[38] as one of the many fortress he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of Len and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and also as a starting point for Muslim offensives. After the disintegration of the Caliphate of Crdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo. With the surrender of Toledo by Alfonso VI of Len and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, and it was integrated into the kingdom of Castile as a property of the Crown.[39] Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the center of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of "villa", whose administrative district extended from the Jarama in the east to the river Guadarrama in the west. The government of the town was vested to the neighboring of Madrid since 1346, when king Alfonso XI of Castile implements the regiment, for which only the local oligarchy was taking sides in city decisions.[40] Since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council,[41] which was expanded in 1222 by Fernando III of Castile. The first time the Courts of Castile were joined in Madrid was in 1309 under Ferdinand IV of Castile, and later in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435. Since the unification of the kingdoms of Spain under a common Crown, the Courts were convened in Madrid more often.

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Modern Age

View of Madrid from the west, facing the Puerta de la Vega (1562), by Anton Van der Wyngaerde (called in Spain Antonio de las Vias), commissioned by Philip II to collect views of his cities. Is seen in the foreground the banks of the Manzanares, crossed by the predecessors to the Segovia Bridge (in the first third), and the Toledo Bridge (further south, right), which was built in a monumental form years later. The most prominent building in the north (left) is the Alczar, which was part of the walled circuit and which would undergo several fires until the fatal one in 1734 that almost completely destroyed it and was replaced by the current Palacio Real. The following churches are seen i