Lower Appendicular Skeleton

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Lower Appendicular Skeleton. Pelvic Girdle. Composed of sacrum, coccyx, and 2 coxae (hipbones) Coxae have 3 distinct parts: Ilium Ischium Pubis. Pelvic Girdle, continued…. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Lower Appendicular Skeleton

  • Lower Appendicular Skeleton

  • Pelvic GirdleComposed of sacrum, coccyx, and 2 coxae (hipbones)Coxae have 3 distinct parts:IliumIschiumPubis

  • Pelvic Girdle, continued..Coxae parts fuse together in the acetabulum, a cup-shaped area on the lateral surface of the hip that receives the head of the femur.

  • IliumLargest and uppermost portion of the coxaThe upper edge is called the iliac crestJoins the sacrum at the sacroiliac jointAnterior superior iliac spine- the bony prominence you feel as your hipbone

  • IschiumForms the lowest portion of the coxaIschial tuberosityPoints posteriorly AND downwardSupports the weight of the body when sittingIschial spine a sharp projection above the ischial tuberosity, near the junction of the ischium and ilium

  • PubisAnterior portion of the coxaTwo pubic bones join midline at the symphysis pubis jointPubic arch Angle formed by pubic bones below the symphysis pubisArch is wider in females

  • Female vs. Male Pelvis

  • Lower LimbFemurPatellaTibiaFibulaTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalanges

  • FemurLongest and strongest bone in the bodyHead at top fits into __________of coxaGreater trochanter superior, lateral processLesser trochanter inferior, medial processDistal end:Two rounded processes posteriorly: lateral condyle and medial condylePatella articulates anteriorly

  • Tibiaaka, shin boneProximal end:Medial and lateral condyles are concave and articulate with condyles of the femurTibial tuberosity just below the condyles; attachment point for patellar ligamentDistal end: medial malleolus forms prominent bony point of inner ankle

  • FibulaProximal: headArticulates with tibia just below the lateral condyleDOES NOT enter into knee joint or bear any weightDistal: lateral malleolus forms outer prominent bony part of ankle

  • Ankle (Tarsals)Tiger Cubs Need MILCTalus (A)Calcaneus (heal bone) (K)Navicular (B)Medial cuneiform (D)Intermediate cuneiform (C)Lateral cuneiform (I)Cuboid (J)

  • Side View of the Bones of the Foot

  • Foot5 metatarsals numbered 1-5 starting mediallyHeads at distal ends form the ball of the footPhalangesToesEach toe has 3 phalanges, except the big toeWhat are the phalanges of each toe called? (HINT: Just like the fingers)Which phalanx is the big toe missing?

  • JointsAKA articulations functional junctions between bonesFunctions:Bind parts of the skeletal systemMake bone growth possiblePermit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirthEnable the body to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions

    A: anterior surfaceB: posterior surface*Bones of right leg, viewed from the front*