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The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular Skeleton South University Online Anatomy & Physiology Class By Linda Langevoort

The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

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The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular Skeleton

The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular SkeletonSouth University Online

Anatomy & Physiology Class By Linda Langevoort

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1INTRODUCTIONThe Skeletal System consists of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises the skull, the auditory ossicles and hyoid bone, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. The Appendicular skeleton comprises the upper and lower limbs, the pectoral and pelvic girdles. This set of amazing skeletal frameworks support our weight and limbs. Protects our bodys organs. Provides attachment for muscles and participates in our respiration.

Let the EXPLORATION begin!

(Martini, Nath 2009) writtenClip Art Images


In this power point I hope to show the bones and the assembly of the Axial Skeleton. I will show you how some of the bones and regions function to make up this portion of the skeleton. I hope to point out the importance of these parts for your better understanding and your learning enjoyment. Are you ready? Come on!Image The Axial Skeleton (Certificate Biology New Mastering Basic Concepts)3The Skull

There are 8 Cranium Bones: 1 Occipital bone2 Parietal bones1 Frontal bone2 Temporal bones1 Sphenoid bone1 Ethmoid bone

There are 14 Facial Bones:2 Maxillary bones2 Palatine bones2 Nasal bones2 Inferior nasal conchae2 Zygomatic bones2 Lacrimal bones1 Vomer1 Mandible

There are 7 Associated Bones: 6 are auditory ossicles and 1 is the Hyoid bone(Martini, Nath 2009) writtenImage the Skull (Azad 2010) 4

The Cranial BonesThe 22 bones of the cranium function to protect the brain and entrance to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 14 facial bones provide for muscle attachment; facial expressions; eating of food; help to separate nasal and oral cavities, house the sinuses and to protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 1 hyoid bone, functions to support the larynx and provides attachment for our tongue to deliver our ability for speech.

The 6 auditory ossicles are located in a cavity within the temporal bone.

.Earlier skulls of human ancestors, for instance, have been shown to have markedly smaller cranial capacities, as well as more powerful jaws, than do theHomo sapiensspecies which exist today.

Did you know?(Martini, Nath 2009) written; Did You Know Fact, ("Yahoo education -," )Clip Art Image


The Hyoid Bone

The Hyoid bone supports the larynx and is the attachment point for the tongue and muscles of the larynx and pharynx. The Hyoid bone plays an important part in our speech. The greater horns support the larynx and is the part attached to the tongue. The lesser horns are attached to the stylohyoid ligaments.

Image - (Encyclopedia Britannica eb.com, 2011) , Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written

6The Auditory OssiclesThe middle ear contains three tiny ear bones called the Auditory Ossicles. The Malleus (also called the Hammer). The Incus (also called the Anvil).The Stapes (also called the Stirrup).

Remember they are on each side, thus 6 total.

Image Auditory Ossicles -(Ear Sculpting, 2010), Ear Diagram -(Buzzle.com, 2011) , Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written7The articulations and joints where the bones come together are called sutures. Sutures are held together by connective tissue. Each suture comes with a names, but for now lets refer to the 4 major sutures.The Lambdoid suture. This separates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones.The Coronal suture. This suture attaches the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.The Sagittal suture. Found a the midline it runs parallel between the two parietal bones.The Squamous suture. This suture forms a boundary between the temporal bone and parietal bones on each side of the cranium.

The Sutures of the Skull

Lamboid sutureCoronal sutureSagittal sutureNote: The Squamous suture is between the Temporal and Parietal bones.Cannot be seen on this diagram.Image - (Schelling)(Martini, Nath 2009) written

8The Orbital ComplexThe orbital complex is the area that surrounds each eye and the nasal complex, which surrounds the nasal cavities. The Frontal bone forms the roofThe Maxilla provides an orbital floorThe Lacrimal bone forms the inner wall of each orbit.

The Nasal ComplexThe nasal complex encloses the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses connected to the nasal cavities.

The Frontal bone, sphenoid and ethmoid bones form the superior wall of the nasal cavities, while the lateral walls are formed by the maxillae, the lacrimal bones, the ethmoid, and the inferior nasal conchae.

Much of the nasal cavity is formed by soft tissues of the nose. The bridge of the nose is formed from the maxillae and nasal bones.

The paranasal sinuses are made up of the paired palatine, paranasal, maxillary and sinus bones. They lighten the skull bones and provide an area for mucous secretions. They also filter out particulate matter such as dust and microorganisms.

Clip Art Image(Martini, Nath 2009) written

9The Infant Skull

Skulls of infant and adults differ in their size and shape and cranial elements.In an infant the most important growth occurs before age 5. At birth, the connective tissues of the skull on an infant can be distorted without damage. These changes to the skull, ease passage of the infant through the birth canal. The anterior fontanelle, also referred to as the soft spot can be easily seen. The occipital, sphenoidal, and mastoid fontanelles disappear with a month or two after birth. The fibrous connections remain.

Photo: The top photo shows the sutures of the infant skull.

The bottom photo the Anterior Fontanelle, a diamond-shaped soft spot.Image - (NIH National Institute for Health, 1997) (Martini, Nath 2009) written10The Spine, Ribs, Sternum, Sacrum and CoccyxThe vertebral column Consists of:24 vertebrae1 Sacrum1 Coccyx

The Vertebral column is made up of four spinal curves. 1. The Cervical curve which balances the weight of our head on our neck.2. The Thoracic curve which accommodate the thoracic organs.3. The Lumbar curve which balances the weight of our trunk over our lower limbs and assists in our standing.4. The Sacral curve which accommodates the abdominopelvic organs.The Thoracic cageConsists of:1 Sternum24 Ribs

The Vertebral regions are:1. The Cervical (C1-C7) consisting of the Atlas (C1) and the Axis(C2) which constitutes the neck and attaches to the Thoracic vertebrae.2. The Thoracic (T1-T12) consisting of the ribs and costal and transverse costal facets.3. The Lumbar (L1-L5) which articulates with the sacrum which articulates with the coccyx.

Clip Art Image(Martini, Nath 2009) written


Photo:The Vertebral Regions

Cervical (C1-C7)Thoracic (T1-T12)Lumbar (L1-L5)SacrumCoccyxCervical CurveThoracic CurveLumbar CurveSacral CurvePhoto: The 4 Spinal CurvesImage Vertebrae (Mr. T, 2008 2009)12

The RibsThe 24 Ribs originate between the thoracic vertebrae and end in the wall of the thoracic cavity. Ribs 1-7 are called true ribs. Ribs 8-12 are called false ribs, since they do not attach directly to the sternum. The last two pairs of ribs 11-12 are called floating ribs, because they have no connection with the sternum or vertebral ribs.

The sternum is the boney breast bone in the center of the ribs. Its movements are important in respiration.

The thoracic cage and ribs protect the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures. It serves as attachment for muscles involved in respiration, position of the vertebral column and movements of the pectoral girdle & upper limbs.Image - ("Rib cage by," 2005)(Martini, Nath 2009) written13Spinal Disorders

Spondylolithesis is when one vertebra slips forward in front of another vertebrae. The result is pain in the low back, thighs and or legs. Muscle spasms, weakness and tight ham strings may accompany it. Symptoms can become worse with exercise. This disorder can result from improper lifting of heavy items, weightlifting or high impact sports. Treatment with physical therapy, spinal injection or surgery are usually prescribed. Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It is most common in adolescent females. It is a genetic condition that frequently runs in families. Some signs of it are: one hip being higher than the other; one shoulder blade appearing more prominent; small curves in the back and deformity (usually in the upper back). Treatment with back braces to try to restrain the curves during growth years may help somewhat. In some cases, surgery to straighten the spine and create a fusion is performed.Image Spondylolithesis and Scoliosis (The North Shore Institute, 2011) (The North Shore Institute, 2011) written

14Lets see what you learned about the Axial Skeleton. Try this short quiz.1. The Axial Skeleton is comprised of:a. the skull, limbs, vertebral column, the ribs & the hyoid bone.b. the skull, auditory ossicles & hyoid bone, vertebral column and the thoracic cage.c. The skull, the hyoid bone, the vertebral column and the pectoral girdle.

2. In this power point presentation there are ___ number of facial bones listed.a. 10b. 14c. 8

3. The Malleus of the ear, is also called the _______.a. stirrupb. anvilc. hammer

4. The paranasal sinuses are part of the ____ complex and they function to ________.a. orbital; provide an orbital floor.b. nasal; filter out particulate matter.c. paranormal; to do ghost busting.just a few more ---turn the page

Quiz by Linda Langevoort15Check your answers are at the end of this power point! Good Luck!5. An infants most important skull growth occurs before age ____.a. 5b. 3c. 4

6. What part of our vertical column provides a great deal of protection to our vital organs?a. lumbarb. cervicalc. thoracic

7. Scoliosis is a _____________.a. abnormal curvature of the spine.b. humped back.c. vertebra that slipped out of place.

8. The sternum is the boney breast bone thats movements are important to ________.a. the heart.b. the respiration.c. the floating ribs.

Quiz - by Linda LangevoortClip Art enhancement


Moving right along, in this next part of my presentation, I hope to show the bones of the appendicular skeleton and the assembly of the Appendicular Skeleton; show you how some of the bones and regions function to make up this portion of the skeleton. I hope to point out the importance of these parts for your better understanding and your learning enjoyment. Are you ready? Come on!Image The Appendicular Skeleton (Krimando, PhD, 2011)17The Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton consists of 126 bones. The parts consist of the Pectoral Girdle, the Upper Limbs, the Pelvic Girdle, and the Lower Limbs.

The Pectoral Girdle2 Clavicles2 ScapulaThe Upper Limbs2 Humerus2 Radius2 Ulna16 Carpal bones10 Metacarpal bones28 PhalangesThe Pelvic Girdle2 Hip bonesThe Lower Limbs2 Femur2 Patella2 Tibia2 Fibula14 Tarsal bones10 Metatarsal bones28 Phalanges

(Martini, Nath 2009) writtenClip Art Image

18The Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle attaches to the upper limbs and consists of:

The Clavicles AndThe Scapulae

Movements of the clavicles andscapulae, position the shoulder joints and provide a base for arm movement. The surfaces of the scapulae and clavicles are important sites for muscle attachment.

Image The Scapulae and Clavicle ("Anatomy - function," )(Martini, Nath 2009) written19The Upper Limbs

The Upper Limbs are made up of the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands.

The Humerus this limb extends from the scapula to the elbow. This arm bone articulates with the shoulder joint known as the glenohumeral joint. It has a prominent greater tubercle at its humeral head and a smaller projection called the lesser tubercle and its anterior medial surface. Between the tubercles you will find the anatomical neck, surgical neck, the deltoid tuberosity, radial groove medial lateral epicondyles and the condyle. At the condyle the humerus articulates with the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. From the condyle, the humerus divides into two articular regions: the trochlea and the capitulum. Other visible parts are the coronoid fossa, the olecranon, and the radial fossa.

Image The Humerus ("The university of," 1995-2010) (Martini, Nath 2009) written20The UlnaThe RadiusThe Ulna lies medial to the radius. The olecranon is the point of the elbow that is at the superior end of the ulna. The ulna articulates with the trochlea of the humerus at the elbow joint. The coronoid process, radial notch is what accommodates the head of the radius. The shaft of the ulna, meets the ulnar head. The posterior lateral surface of the ulna has a short styloid process. The lateral surface of the ulnar head articulates with the distal end of the radius. The Radius is the lateral bone of the forearm. The disc-shaped radial head, articulates with the capitulum of the humerus. A narrow neck from the radius extends to the radial tuberosity. The biceps brachii muscle attaches here. The ulnar notch and the styloid process are other areas visible. The styloid process helps to stabilize the joint. The radial notch of the ulna or the ulnar notch of the radius, will quickly tell whether it is the left or right isolated radius or ulna.

Note:The radius and ulna connect to the humerus bone of the upper arm at the elbow joint. The elbow joint consists of a series of muscles or ligaments acting like a hinge so you can bend and straighten your arm. This bending and straighten is called flexion and extension.Try this experiment:You can actually feel the radius and ulna rotating. Hold your right forearm with your left hand. Then rotate your right wrist palm up and then palm down. You will feel the radius and ulna bones in your right arm twisting and rotating.

Image The Ulna and the Radius (Fankhauser PhD, 2011), (KidPort Reference Library, 1998) (KidPort Reference Library, 1998) Written note and experiment

21The Carpal BonesThe Carpus, (wrist) contains 8 carpal bones. There are 4 proximal carpal bones and 4 distal carpal bones. The Scaphoid laterally borders the wrist close to the styliod process and radius.The Lunate lies medially to the scaphoid and articulates with the radius.The Triquetrum articulates with the articular disc separating the ulnar head from the wrist.The Pisiform is anterior the Triquetrum.The Trapezium is lateral of the distal row and it articulates with the scaphoid.The Trapezoid lies medial to the Trapezium. It has a proximal articulation with the Scaphoid.The Capitate is the largest carpal bone sitting between the Trapezoid and the Hamate.The Hamate is the medial distal carpal bone.

A Condition of the Wrist - Video on Carpel Tunnel Syndrome(*you may have to manually link to this video). http://youtu.be/sXs6SCGGm1Q

Image Carpals ("Dreamstime - stock," 2011) , You Tube Video Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, (Fennell, PhD, 2011)(Martini, Nath 2009) written22Photo:The Metacarpals and Phalanges showing the (Posterior view) of the distal, middle and proximal bones.The Metacarpals and PhalangesThe Metacarpal bones have 5 bones that articulate with the distal carpal bones and give the hand support.

Each hand has 14 phalanges (finger bones).

The Pollex is our thumb and first finger. It has two phalanges (proximal and distal).

Your other fingers have 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal)

This is much easier to understand and see in the picture on the right.

Image Metacarpals and Phalanges and bones (Health Hype.com, 2006)(Martini, Nath 2009) written

23The Pelvic Girdle

The Pelvic Girdle consists of:The two hip bones (coxal/pelvic bones)The fusion of three bones the Ilium, Ischium and Pubis bones.The Acetabulum is a concave socket that articulates with the head of the Femur.The Acetabular notch is a gap on the anterior and inferior portion of the ridge.The Lunate appears as a smooth articular surface on the Acetabulum.The Greater Sciatic notch is a gap through which the major sciatic nerve reaches the lower limb.The Ishial spine allows for blood vessels, nerves and small muscles to pass.The Ischial tuberosity is located posterior and lateral of the ischium.The Ischial ramus is a narrow bone meeting the pubis.The Superior ramus meets the Inferior ramus near the acetabulum. The Obturator foramen is an opening with collagen fibers enclosing it. It is a muscle attachment area for the hip.The Arcuate line and the Iliac crest are the broadest part of the Ilium. These are attachment sites for ligaments and muscles.The Iliac fossa is a depression in the Iliac crest.The Pubic symphysis makes up the pubic bones and are attached together by a fibrous cartilage.The Iliac tuberosity stabilizes the sacroiliac joint at the Sacrum.The Pelvic Girdle is the attachment site for the lower limbs. It must withstand the stresses of bearing weight and of movement.

Image - (Liang, 1999-2011)(Martini, Nath 2009) written

24 The PelvisThe Pelvis consists of the two Hip bones, the Sacrum and the Coccyx. These photos depict the male and female pelviss. The male (left photo) has a shape somewhat different from the female (right photo).

Females have adaptations for childbearing that include:*An enlarged pelvic outlet.*A broader pubic angle*Less curvature of the sacrum and coccyx.* A wider more circular pelvic inlet.* A broad pelvis, that does not extend superiorly (or lower)*Ilia that project farther laterally and not as far superiorly. Notice the (middle photos) and the curvature differences in the sacrum and coccyx bones.

The (last row of photos) shows us the width of the pelvic outlets in comparison.

Image The Pelvis (male and female), ("Schleese the felmale," 2010)(Martini, Nath 2009) written

25Diagram of the Pelvis

Photo:Parts of the Pelvis (Pelvic Girdle)

Image The Pelvis 2, ("The encyclopedia of," ), Cartoon Image Elvis the Pelvis, ("Csl- cartoon stock,," )26The Lower LimbsThe lower limbs are designed for movement and support. The lower limbs consist of:The Femur the longest and heaviest bone in the bodyIt articulates with the hip bone at the hip joint and with the tibia of the leg at the knee joint.The Patella is a large sesamoid bone that forms within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris. It is better known as the knee cap. It connects at the apex of the patella to the tibia.The Tibia this shinbone is the large medial bone of the leg. The medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the proximal end of the tibia.The Fibula parallels the lateral border of the tibia. The fibula does not articulate with the femur, but instead its importance is attachment for muscles that move the foot and toes.The Tarsal Bones they articulate between the talus and the tibia toward the toes. (We will discuss the tarsals more on another slide).

Image The Lower Limbs, ("Oracle think quest," ) (Martini, Nath 2009) written 27The Femur consists of:

The Femoral head which articulates with the pelvis. A ligament attaches it at the acetabulum to the femur at the fovea capitis.It has a neck, shaft, greater and lesser trochanters, intertrochanteric line and line aspera.

The Femur as it reaches the knee joint has some ridges that lead to the medial and lateral epicondyles. They are part of the knee joint. The condyles are separated by a deep intercondylar fossa.

The anterior and inferior surfaces of the two condyles are separated by a patellar surface on which the patella glides. The Femur

Image The Femur, ("Learner help.com -," )28Did you know?

Runners Knee, (patellofemoral stress syndrome) develops from improper tracking of the patella across the patellar surface. The patella is forced outside its normal track so it begins to shift laterally. Running on hard or slanted surfaces and inadequate arch support are often responsible. The misalignment puts pressure on the knee, resulting in swelling and tenderness after exercise.The Patella, also called the knee cap glides across the patellar surface of the femur. It is a sesamoid bone that forms within tendons and extends to the knee. Attachment areas lend to tendons and ligaments.It consists of:The BaseThe ApexLateral facet and Lateral CondyleMedial facet and Medial CondyleThe Articular surfaceAttachment areas

The Patella

Image Patella, ("The encyclopedia of," ), Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written

29Which is bigger?

A way to remember is To tell a lie is a fib. A fib is a small lie, so the fibula is smaller than the tibia and it is also lateral to it.The TibiaThe Tibia or shinbone is one of our weigh bearing bones. It is a large medial bone of the leg. It consists of:Medial and Lateral tibial condylesIntercondylar eminence (a ridge)Tibial tuberosity (attachment for ligament)Anterior margin (a ridge)Medial malleolus (that bump on your ankle)

The tibia articulates with the proximal bone of the ankle; the medial malleolus, which provides support for this joint.

The FibulaThe Fibula, a slender bone, parallels the lateral border of the tibia. The fibula does not help transfer weight to the ankle and foot. It is however an important site for attachment of muscles that move the foot and the ankle joint. The fibula consists of:Interosseous membrane (bounds it to the tibia)Lateral malleolus (the fibular process) provides stability to the ankle.

Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written


The Tibia and Fibula (Anterior view)

Bone Health If you want to have good healthy bones, adequate consumption of calcium-rich foods is important. Youll also want to strengthen your bones by performing weight-bearing exercises to optimize bone mass and reduce chances of development of osteoporosis later in life. Our bones protect our organs, anchor muscles and provide structure to our body.

Image Tibia and Fibula, (Hopper); Clip Art enhancements("Cdc-center for disease," ) written

31The Tarsal Bones

The ankle or tarsus, consists of seven tarsal bones:

The Talus transmits weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes.The Trochlea a pulley-shaped articular process. The trochlea articulates with the lateral malleolus of the fibula.The Calcaneus or heel bone, is one of the largest tarsal bones. Looks like a knob-shaped projection.The Cuboid articulates with the anterior surface of the calcaneus.The Navicular (anterior to the talus on the medial side of the ankle); it articulates with the talus and 3 cuneiform bonesMedial, Intermediate and Lateral Cuneiform bones they articulate with the anterior surface of the navicular. The later cuneiform also articulates with the cuboid.

Photo: Casted Footprints from Big Foot.

Image The Foot, ("Buzzle.com - foot," 2000-2010), Image Big Foot Casts, ("Indiana county today," ); Clip Art Image smiley(Martini, Nath 2009) written

32The Metatarsals and PhalangesThe Metatarsal bones are five long bones that form the distal portion of the foot or metatarsus. Roman numerals help identify them. Bones I-III articulate with the three cuneiform bones and Bones IV and V articulate with the cuboid.

The Phalanges, or toes, have the same organization as the fingers. The toes contain 14 phalanges. (Each foot)The Hallux, or great toe has 2 phalanges (proximal and distal). The other four toes each have 3 phalanges a piece (proximal, middle and distal).

The Longitudinal arch of the foot is where weight transfers. Ligaments and tendons maintain this arch.The Transverse arch is the curvature seen from the medial to the lateral borders of the foot.

Did you know?Gout (joint pain) is caused by a build up of uric acid in the joints of the foot. It usually occurs to the large toe and is very painful and produces swelling and warmth around the affected joint.

Image Feet, ("E-how health- joint," ); Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009), ("E-how health- joint," ) written 33The Joints of the SkeletonJoints are what make the skeleton move. We cannot just discuss the skeleton without knowing what makes it move and articulate. The connecting joints are working to enable you to walk, sit, stand and change positions throughout daily life. These bones provide strength, support and protection for softer tissues of the body. Think about the activities you do everyday with the help of your joints!The classifications of joints are: bony, fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial. There are also accessory structures that help the joints articulate and cushion them. They are things like: cartilage (firm tissue that cushions) and fat pads (adipose tissue covered by synovial membrane), ligaments (a firm band of fibrous tissue that connects bone or cartilage), tendons (flexible but fibrous tissue, attaching muscles to bone) and bursae (fluid filled pockets to protect as shock absorbers).On the next slide we will begin discussing some of the joints1(Martini, Nath 2009)written

34Ball and Socket JointThe ball and socket joint allows the head of one bone to rest within a cupped depression inside another. It allows for all kinds of angular and rotational movement including circumduction . The shoulder and femur have this type of joint.

Hinged JointThe hinged joint permits angular movement in a single plane, just like when you open and close a door. You will find this type of joint in the elbow, knee, ankle and interphalangeal joints.Pivot JointThe Pivot Joint is a joint that permits only rotation. You will find this type of joint in the tibia and fibula, the radius and ulna and the atlas and axis areas.2Image Joints, ("Merriam webster- visual," )(Martini, Nath 2009) written


Synovial JointsThe Synovial joint are ones that allow for different ranges of motion. The ends of these joints have cartilage to reduce friction. Synovial fluid lubricates the synovial joints.Condylar JointThis joint has an oval articular face and has a depression in the opposing surface. It allows for flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. You will find it in the:

radiocarpal joint metacarpophalangeal joints -2 &5metatarsophalangeal jointsGliding JointThis joint has a flattened or slightly curved face. Flat articular surfaces slide across one another. The amount of movement is slight since ligament restrict some movement. You will find it in the:

Claviculosternal jointIntercarpal & intertarsal jointsVetebrocostal jointsSacro-iliac jointsSaddle JointThis joint is named saddle for the way it fits together like a rider in a saddle. The articular face is concave alone one axis and convex along the other. It allows movement in angular motion or circumduction. You will find it in the:1st metacarpal joint3Image Synovial Joints, ("Merriam webster- visual," )(Martini, Nath 2009)written36Classifications of BonesI would like to present the types of bones that make up our skeletal system. We know that they are not all similar in shape or size so lets explore their differences. These are the classifications of shapes.

Sutural bones also called wormian bones. They are flat irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones of the skull. They have borders like a jigsaw puzzle. (Example: the cranium sutures)Irregular bones these have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces. (Example: Vertebrae)Short bones these are small and boxy. (Examples: the wrists, tarsals, and ankle)Flat bones these have thin, parallel surfaces. They protect underlying soft tissues and provide attachment of skeletal muscles. (Example: sternum, ribs, scapulae)Long bones- long and slender. (Examples: the femur, forearm, thigh, palms, soles, fingers, toesSesamoid bones- these are small, flat and shaped that like a sesame seed. They develop inside tendons. (Examples: knee caps, fingers, toes, feet).

(Martini, Nath 2009)written37

Bonus: This crossword will test your knowledge. Follow the link to the website and see how you do!


Answers: Quiz on the Axial Skeleton:1. B2. B3. C4. B5. A6. C7. A8. B

How did you do?Images - Clip ArtCrossword Puzzle, ("Anatomy arcade -," )38

Thank you for viewing my Skeletal System Power Point!By Linda Langevoort, South University Online- Anatomy & Physiology Image Skeleton Wave, (Human a&p,)Clip Art enhancement39 References

Written material:Martini,Nath. (2009).Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 170-171). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Martini,Nath. (2009).Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 197-252). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Martini,Nath. (2009).Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 254-263). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Marieb, Mitchell. (2009).Human anatomy & physiology laboratory manual. (9th ed., pp. 123-156). Pearson/Benjamin Cummings: San Francisco.Martini,Nath. (2009).Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 575-576). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Martini,Nath. (2009).Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 220-228). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.The North Shore Institute. (2011).Neurologicalorthopaedic rehabilitation total health. Retrieved from http://northinstitute.com/specialties/common-causes-of-back-pain.phpKidPort Reference Library. (1998).Radius and ulna. Retrieved from http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/HumanBody/SkeletalSystem/RadiusUlna.htmCdc-center for disease control and prevention- nutrition for everyone. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/calcium.htmlE-how health- joint pain in the metatarsals and phalanges. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ehow.co.uk/facts_5623046_joint-pain-metatarsals-phalanges.htmlYahoo education - skull - facts from the encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://education.yahoo.com/reference/encyclopedia/entry/skull

Image material:

Azad, A. (Photographer). (2010).Facial bones. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.learnbones.com/skull-cranial-and-facial-bones-anatomy

Luker, V. B. (n.d.).Ay! octogenarians and crab shackscrabs. Retrieved from http://amarkonmywall.wordpress.com/2009/02/25/ay-octogenarians-and-crab-shacks/

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