The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular Skeleton South University Online Anatomy & Physiology Class By Linda Langevoort

The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

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Page 1: The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

The Axial Skeleton &

The AppendicularSkeleton

South University Online

Anatomy & Physiology Class By Linda Langevoort

Page 2: The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

INTRODUCTION The Skeletal System consists of the axial skeleton and the

appendicular skeleton.

The Axial skeleton comprises the skull, the auditory ossicles and hyoid bone, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage.

The Appendicular skeleton comprises the upper and lower limbs, the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

This set of amazing skeletal frameworks support our weight and limbs. Protects our body’s organs. Provides attachment for muscles and participates in our respiration.

Let the EXPLORATION begin!

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In this power point I hope to show thebones and the assembly of the AxialSkeleton. I will show you how some ofthe bones and regions function to makeup this portion of the skeleton. I hopeto point out the importance of theseparts for your better understanding andyour learning enjoyment. Are youready? Come on!

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The Skull

There are 8 Cranium Bones: 1 Occipital bone2 Parietal bones1 Frontal bone2 Temporal bones1 Sphenoid bone1 Ethmoid bone

There are 14 Facial Bones:2 Maxillary bones2 Palatine bones2 Nasal bones2 Inferior nasal conchae2 Zygomatic bones2 Lacrimal bones1 Vomer1 Mandible

There are 7 Associated Bones: 6 are auditory ossicles and 1 is the Hyoid bone

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The Cranial Bones

The 22 bones of the cranium function to protect the brain and entrance to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 14 facial bones provide for muscle attachment; facial expressions; eating of food; help to separate nasal and oral cavities, house the sinuses and to protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 1 hyoid bone, functions to support the larynx and provides attachment for our tongue to deliver our ability for speech.

The 6 auditory ossicles are located in a cavity within the temporal bone.

.Earlier skulls of human ancestors, for

instance, have been shown to have

markedly smaller cranial capacities, as

well as more powerful jaws, than do

the Homo sapiens species which exist


Did you know?

Page 6: The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

The Hyoid Bone

The Hyoid bone supports the larynx and is the attachment point for the tongue and muscles of the larynx and pharynx. The Hyoid bone plays an important part in our

speech. The greater horns support the larynx and is the part attached to the tongue. The lesser horns are attached to the stylohyoid ligaments.

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The Auditory Ossicles

The middle ear contains three tiny ear bones called the Auditory Ossicles. The Malleus (also called the “Hammer”). The Incus (also called the “Anvil”). The Stapes (also called the “Stirrup”).

Remember they are on each side, thus 6 total.

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The articulations and joints where the bones come together are called sutures. Sutures are held together by connective tissue. Each suture comes with a names, but for now lets refer to the 4 major sutures.

The Lambdoid suture. This separates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones.

The Coronal suture. This suture attaches the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.

The Sagittal suture. Found a the midline it runs parallel between the two parietal bones.

The Squamous suture. This suture forms a boundary between the temporal bone and parietal bones on each side of the cranium.

The Sutures of the Skull

Lamboid suture

Coronal suture

Sagittal suture

Note: The Squamous suture is between the Temporal and Parietal bones.Cannot be seen on this diagram.

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The Orbital ComplexThe orbital complex is the area that surrounds each eye and the nasal complex, which surrounds the nasal cavities.

The Frontal bone – forms the roof

The Maxilla – provides an orbital floor

The Lacrimal bone – forms the inner wall of each orbit.

• The Nasal ComplexThe nasal complex encloses the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses connected to the nasal cavities.

The Frontal bone, sphenoid and ethmoid bones form the superior wall of the nasal cavities, while the lateral walls are formed by the maxillae, the lacrimal bones, the ethmoid, and the inferior nasal conchae.

Much of the nasal cavity is formed by soft tissues of the nose.

The bridge of the nose is formed from the maxillae and nasal bones.

The paranasal sinuses are made up of the paired palatine, paranasal, maxillary and sinus bones. They lighten the skull bones and provide an area for mucous secretions. They also filter out particulate matter such as dust and microorganisms.

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Photo: The top photo shows the sutures of the infant skull.

The bottom photo the Anterior Fontanelle, a diamond-shaped soft spot.

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The Spine, Ribs, Sternum, Sacrum and CoccyxThe vertebral column Consists of:24 vertebrae1 Sacrum1 Coccyx

The Vertebral column is made up of four spinal curves. 1. The Cervical curve – which balances the weight of our head on our neck.2. The Thoracic curve – which accommodate the thoracic organs.3. The Lumbar curve – which balances the weight of our trunk over our lower limbs and assists in our standing.4. The Sacral curve – which accommodates the abdominopelvic organs.

The Thoracic cageConsists of:1 Sternum24 Ribs

The Vertebral regions are:1. The Cervical (C1-C7) consisting of the Atlas (C1) and the Axis(C2) which constitutes the neck and attaches to the Thoracic vertebrae.2. The Thoracic (T1-T12) consisting of the ribs and costal and transverse costal facets.3. The Lumbar (L1-L5) which articulates with the sacrum which articulates with the coccyx.

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Photo:The Vertebral Regions

Cervical (C1-C7)Thoracic (T1-T12)Lumbar (L1-L5)SacrumCoccyx


Thoracic Curve

Lumbar Curve

Sacral Curve

Photo: The 4 Spinal Curves

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The 24 Ribs originate between the thoracic vertebrae and end in the wall of the thoracic cavity. Ribs 1-7 are called “true ribs”. Ribs 8-12 are called “false ribs”, since they do not attach directly to the sternum. The last two pairs of ribs 11-12 are called “floating ribs”, because they have no connection with the sternum or vertebral ribs.

The sternum is the boney breast bone in the center of the ribs. It’s movements are important in respiration.

The thoracic cage and ribs protect the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures. It serves as attachment for muscles involved in respiration, position of the vertebral column and movements of the pectoral girdle & upper limbs.

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Spinal DisordersSpondylolithesis is when one vertebra slips forward in front of another vertebrae. The result is pain in the low back, thighs and or legs. Muscle spasms, weakness and tight ham strings may accompany it. Symptoms can become worse with exercise. This disorder can result from improper lifting of heavy items, weightlifting or high impact sports. Treatment with physical therapy, spinal injection or surgery are usually prescribed.

Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It is most common in adolescent females. It is a genetic condition that frequently runs in families. Some signs of it are: one hip being higher than the other; one shoulder blade appearing more prominent; small curves in the back and deformity (usually in the upper back). Treatment with back braces to try to restrain the curves during growth years may help somewhat. In some cases, surgery to straighten the spine and create a fusion is performed.

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Let’s see what you learned about the Axial Skeleton. Try this short quiz.

1. The Axial Skeleton is comprised of:

a. the skull, limbs, vertebral column, the ribs & the hyoid bone.

b. the skull, auditory ossicles & hyoid bone, vertebral column and the thoracic cage.

c. The skull, the hyoid bone, the vertebral column and the pectoral girdle.

2. In this power point presentation there are ___ number of facial bones listed.

a. 10

b. 14

c. 8

3. The Malleus of the ear, is also called the _______.

a. stirrup

b. anvil

c. hammer

4. The paranasal sinuses are part of the ____ complex and they function to ________.

a. orbital; provide an orbital floor.

b. nasal; filter out particulate matter.

c. paranormal; to do ghost busting.

just a few more ---turn the page

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Check your answers are at the end of this power point! Good Luck!

5. An infant’s most important skull growth occurs before age ____.

a. 5

b. 3

c. 4

6. What part of our vertical column provides a great deal of protection to our vital organs?

a. lumbar

b. cervical

c. thoracic

7. Scoliosis is a _____________.

a. abnormal curvature of the spine.

b. humped back.

c. vertebra that slipped out of place.

8. The sternum is the boney breast bone that’s movements are important to ________.

a. the heart.

b. the respiration.

c. the floating ribs.

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Moving right along, in this next part ofmy presentation, I hope to show thebones of the appendicular skeletonand the assembly of the AppendicularSkeleton; show you how some of thebones and regions function to make upthis portion of the skeleton. I hope topoint out the importance of theseparts for your better understandingand your learning enjoyment. Are youready? Come on!

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The Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton consists of 126 bones.

The parts consist of the Pectoral Girdle, the Upper Limbs, the Pelvic Girdle, and the Lower Limbs.

The Pectoral Girdle

2 Clavicles

2 Scapula

The Upper Limbs

2 Humerus

2 Radius

2 Ulna

16 Carpal bones

10 Metacarpal bones

28 Phalanges

The Pelvic Girdle

2 Hip bones

The Lower Limbs

2 Femur

2 Patella

2 Tibia

2 Fibula

14 Tarsal bones

10 Metatarsal bones

28 Phalanges

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The Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle attaches to the upper limbs and consists of:

The Clavicles


The Scapulae

Movements of the clavicles and

scapulae, position the shoulder joints and provide a base for arm movement. The surfaces of the scapulae and clavicles are important sites for muscle attachment.

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The Upper Limbs

The Upper Limbs are made up of the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands.

The Humerus – this limb extends from thescapula to the elbow. This arm bone articulateswith the shoulder joint known as theglenohumeral joint. It has a prominent greatertubercle at its humeral head and a smallerprojection called the lesser tubercle and itsanterior medial surface. Between the tuberclesyou will find the anatomical neck, surgicalneck, the deltoid tuberosity, radial groovemedial lateral epicondyles and the condyle. Atthe condyle the humerus articulates with theradius and ulna bones of the forearm.

From the condyle, the humerus divides intotwo articular regions: the trochlea and thecapitulum. Other visible parts are the coronoidfossa, the olecranon, and the radial fossa.

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The Ulna The Radius

The Ulna – lies medial to the radius. Theolecranon is the point of the elbow that is atthe superior end of the ulna. The ulnaarticulates with the trochlea of the humerus atthe elbow joint. The coronoid process, radialnotch is what accommodates the head of theradius. The shaft of the ulna, meets the ulnarhead. The posterior lateral surface of the ulnahas a short styloid process. The lateralsurface of the ulnar head articulates with thedistal end of the radius.

The Radius – is the lateral bone of theforearm. The disc-shaped radial head,articulates with the capitulum of the humerus.A narrow neck from the radius extends to theradial tuberosity. The biceps brachii muscleattaches here. The ulnar notch and the styloidprocess are other areas visible. The styloidprocess helps to stabilize the joint. The radialnotch of the ulna or the ulnar notch of theradius, will quickly tell whether it is the left orright isolated radius or ulna.

Note:The radius and ulna connect to thehumerus bone of the upper arm atthe elbow joint. The elbow jointconsists of a series of muscles orligaments acting like a hinge soyou can bend and straighten yourarm. This bending and straightenis called flexion and extension.

Try this experiment:You can actually feel the radius and ulnarotating. Hold your right forearm with yourleft hand. Then rotate your right wristpalm up and then palm down. You will feelthe radius and ulna bones in your rightarm twisting and rotating.

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The Carpal Bones

The Carpus, (wrist) contains 8 carpal bones. There are 4 proximal carpal bones and 4 distal carpal bones.

The Scaphoid laterally borders the wrist close to the styliod process and radius.

The Lunate lies medially to the scaphoid and articulates with the radius.

The Triquetrum articulates with the articular disc separating the ulnar head from the wrist.

The Pisiform is anterior the Triquetrum.

The Trapezium is lateral of the distal row and it articulates with the scaphoid.

The Trapezoid lies medial to the Trapezium. It has a proximal articulation with the Scaphoid.

The Capitate is the largest carpal bone sitting between the Trapezoid and the Hamate.

The Hamate is the medial distal carpal bone.

A Condition of the Wrist -Video on Carpel Tunnel Syndrome(*you may have to manually link to this video). http://youtu.be/sXs6SCGGm1Q

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Photo:The Metacarpals and Phalanges showing the (Posterior view) of the distal, middle and proximal bones.

The Metacarpals and Phalanges

The Metacarpal bones have 5 bones that articulate with the distal carpal bones and give the hand support.

Each hand has 14 phalanges (finger bones).

The Pollex – is our thumb and first finger. It has two phalanges (proximal and distal).

Your other fingers have 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal)

This is much easier to understand and see in the picture on the right.

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The Pelvic Girdle

The Pelvic Girdle consists of:The two hip bones (coxal/pelvic bones)The fusion of three bones – the Ilium, Ischium and Pubis bones.The Acetabulum is a concave socket that articulates with the head of the Femur.The Acetabular notch is a gap on the anterior and inferior portion of the ridge.The Lunate appears as a smooth articular surface on the Acetabulum.The Greater Sciatic notch is a gap through which the major sciatic nerve reaches the lower limb.The Ishial spine allows for blood vessels, nerves and small muscles to pass.The Ischial tuberosity is located posterior and lateral of the ischium.The Ischial ramus is a narrow bone meeting the pubis.The Superior ramus meets the Inferior ramus near the acetabulum. The Obturator foramen is an opening with collagen fibers enclosing it. It is a muscle attachment area for the hip.The Arcuate line and the Iliac crest are the broadest part of the Ilium. These are attachment sites for ligaments and muscles.The Iliac fossa is a depression in the Iliac crest.The Pubic symphysis makes up the pubic bones and are attached together by a fibrous cartilage.The Iliac tuberosity stabilizes the sacroiliac joint at the Sacrum.

The Pelvic Girdle is the attachment site forthe lower limbs. It must withstand thestresses of bearing weight and ofmovement.

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The Pelvis

The Pelvis consists of the two Hipbones, the Sacrum and the Coccyx.These photos depict the male andfemale pelvis’s. The male (left photo)has a shape somewhat different fromthe female (right photo).

Females have adaptations forchildbearing that include:*An enlarged pelvic outlet.*A broader pubic angle*Less curvature of the sacrum andcoccyx.* A wider more circular pelvic inlet.* A broad pelvis, that does not extendsuperiorly (or lower)*Ilia that project farther laterally andnot as far superiorly.

Notice the (middle photos) and thecurvature differences in the sacrumand coccyx bones.

The (last row of photos) shows us thewidth of the pelvic outlets incomparison.

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Diagram of the Pelvis

Photo:Parts of the Pelvis (Pelvic Girdle)

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The Lower LimbsThe lower limbs are designed for movement and support. The lower limbs consist of:

The Femur – the longest and heaviest bone in the body

It articulates with the hip bone at the hip joint and with the tibia of the leg at the knee joint.

The Patella – is a large sesamoid bone that forms within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris. It is better known as the “knee cap”. It connects at the apex of the patella to the tibia.

The Tibia – this shinbone is the large medial bone of the leg. The medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the proximal end of the tibia.

The Fibula – parallels the lateral border of the tibia. The fibula does not articulate with the femur, but instead its importance is attachment for muscles that move the foot and toes.

The Tarsal Bones – they articulate between the talus and the tibia toward the toes. (We will discuss the tarsals more on another slide).

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The Femur consists of:

The Femoral head which articulates with thepelvis. A ligament attaches it at theacetabulum to the femur at the fovea capitis.

It has a neck, shaft, greater and lessertrochanters, intertrochanteric line and lineaspera.

The Femur as it reaches the knee joint hassome ridges that lead to the medial andlateral epicondyles. They are part of theknee joint. The condyles are separated by adeep intercondylar fossa.

The anterior and inferior surfaces of the twocondyles are separated by a patellar surfaceon which the patella glides.

The Femur

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Did you know?

Runner’s Knee, (patellofemoral stress syndrome) develops from improper tracking of the patella across the patellar surface. The patella is forced outside its normal track so it begins to shift laterally. Running on hard or slanted surfaces and inadequate arch support are often responsible. The misalignment puts pressure on the knee, resulting in swelling and tenderness after exercise.

The Patella, also called the “knee cap” glides across the patellar surface of the femur. It is a sesamoid bone that forms within tendons and extends to the knee. Attachment areas lend to tendons and ligaments.

It consists of:

The Base

The Apex

Lateral facet and Lateral Condyle

Medial facet and Medial Condyle

The Articular surface

Attachment areas

The Patella

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Which is bigger?

A way to remember is – To tell a lie is a “fib”. A “fib” is a small lie, so the fibula is smaller than the tibia and it is also lateral to it.

The TibiaThe Tibia or “shinbone” is one of our weighbearing bones. It is a large medial bone of theleg. It consists of:

Medial and Lateral tibial condyles

Intercondylar eminence (a ridge)

Tibial tuberosity (attachment for ligament)

Anterior margin (a ridge)

Medial malleolus (that bump on your ankle)

The tibia articulates with the proximal bone ofthe ankle; the medial malleolus, whichprovides support for this joint.

The FibulaThe Fibula, a slender bone, parallels the lateralborder of the tibia. The fibula does not helptransfer weight to the ankle and foot. It ishowever an important site for attachment ofmuscles that move the foot and the anklejoint. The fibula consists of:

Interosseous membrane (bounds it to thetibia)

Lateral malleolus (the fibular process)provides stability to the ankle.

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The Tibia and Fibula (Anterior view)

Bone Health If you want to have good healthy bones, adequate consumption of calcium-rich foods is important. You’ll also want to strengthen your bones by performing weight-bearing exercises to optimize bone mass and reduce chances of development of osteoporosis later in life. Our bones protect our organs, anchor muscles and provide structure to our body.

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The Tarsal Bones

The ankle or tarsus, consists of seven tarsalbones:

The Talus – transmits weight of the body fromthe tibia toward the toes.The Trochlea – a pulley-shaped articularprocess. The trochlea articulates with thelateral malleolus of the fibula.The Calcaneus – or “heel bone”, is one of thelargest tarsal bones. Looks like a knob-shapedprojection.The Cuboid – articulates with the anteriorsurface of the calcaneus.The Navicular – (anterior to the talus on themedial side of the ankle); it articulates with thetalus and 3 cuneiform bonesMedial, Intermediate and LateralCuneiform bones – they articulate with theanterior surface of the navicular. The latercuneiform also articulates with the cuboid.

Photo: Casted Footprints from “Big Foot”.

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The Metatarsals and Phalanges

The Metatarsal bones are five long bonesthat form the distal portion of the foot ormetatarsus. Roman numerals help identifythem. Bones I-III articulate with the threecuneiform bones and Bones IV and Varticulate with the cuboid.

The Phalanges, or toes, have the sameorganization as the fingers. The toes contain14 phalanges. (Each foot)The Hallux, or great toe has 2 phalanges(proximal and distal).The other four toes each have 3 phalangesa piece (proximal, middle and distal).

The Longitudinal arch of the foot is whereweight transfers. Ligaments and tendonsmaintain this arch.The Transverse arch is the curvature seenfrom the medial to the lateral borders of thefoot.

Did you know?Gout (joint pain) is caused by a build up ofuric acid in the joints of the foot. It usuallyoccurs to the large toe and is very painfuland produces swelling and warmth aroundthe affected joint.

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The Joints of the Skeleton

Joints are what make theskeleton move. We cannotjust discuss the skeletonwithout knowing what makesit move and articulate. Theconnecting joints are workingto enable you to walk, sit,stand and change positionsthroughout daily life. Thesebones provide strength,support and protection forsofter tissues of the body.Think about the activities youdo everyday with the help ofyour joints!

The classifications of joints are: bony,fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial. There arealso accessory structures that help the jointsarticulate and cushion them. They are thingslike: cartilage (firm tissue that cushions) andfat pads (adipose tissue covered by synovialmembrane), ligaments (a firm band of fibroustissue that connects bone or cartilage),tendons (flexible but fibrous tissue, attachingmuscles to bone) and bursae (fluid filledpockets to protect as shock absorbers).


Ball and


Hinged joint

Gliding joint

Pivot joint

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The ball and socket joint allows the head of one bone to rest within a cupped depression inside another. It allows for all kinds of angular and rotational movement including circumduction . The shoulder and femur have this type of joint.

The hinged joint permits angular movement in a single plane, just like when you open and close a door. You will find this type of joint in the elbow, knee, ankle and interphalangeal joints.

The Pivot Joint is a joint that permits only rotation. You will find this type of joint in the tibia and fibula, the radius and ulna and the atlas and axis areas.

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The Synovial joint are ones that allow fordifferent ranges of motion. The ends of thesejoints have cartilage to reduce friction. Synovialfluid lubricates the synovial joints.

Condylar Joint

This joint has an oval articular face and has a depression in the opposing surface. It allows for flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. You will find it in the:

• radiocarpal joint • metacarpophalangeal joints -2 &5• metatarsophalangeal joints

Gliding Joint

This joint has a flattened or slightly curved face. Flat articular surfaces slide across one another. The amount of movement is slight since ligament restrict some movement. You will find it in the:

• Claviculosternal joint• Intercarpal & intertarsal joints• Vetebrocostal joints• Sacro-iliac joints

Saddle Joint

This joint is named saddle for the way it fits together like a rider in a saddle. The articular face is concave alone one axis and convex along the other. It allows movement in angular motion or circumduction. You will find it in the:• 1st metacarpal joint

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Classifications of BonesI would like to present the types of bones that make up our skeletal system. We know that they are not all similar in shape or size so lets explore their differences. These are the classifications of shapes.

1. Sutural bones – also called “wormian bones”. They are flat irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones of the skull. They have borders like a jigsaw puzzle. (Example: the cranium sutures)

2. Irregular bones – these have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces. (Example: Vertebrae)

3. Short bones – these are small and boxy. (Examples: the wrists, tarsals, and ankle)

4. Flat bones – these have thin, parallel surfaces. They protect underlying soft tissues and provide attachment of skeletal muscles. (Example: sternum, ribs, scapulae)

5. Long bones- long and slender. (Examples: the femur, forearm, thigh, palms, soles, fingers, toes

6. Sesamoid bones- these are small, flat and shaped that like a sesame seed. They develop inside tendons. (Examples: knee caps, fingers, toes, feet).

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Bonus: This crossword will test your knowledge. Follow the link to the website and see how you do!


Answers: Quiz on the Axial Skeleton:1. B2. B3. C4. B5. A6. C7. A8. B

How did you do?

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Thank you for viewing my Skeletal System Power Point!By Linda Langevoort, South University Online- Anatomy & Physiology

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Written material: Martini,Nath. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp.

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Martini,Nath. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (9th ed., pp. 575-576). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.

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Cdc-center for disease control and prevention- nutrition for everyone. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/calcium.html

E-how health- joint pain in the metatarsals and phalanges. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ehow.co.uk/facts_5623046_joint-pain-metatarsals-phalanges.html

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Luker, V. B. (n.d.). Ay! octogenarians and crab shackscrabs. Retrieved from http://amarkonmywall.wordpress.com/2009/02/25/ay-octogenarians-and-crab-shacks/

Schelling, F. (n.d.). The skull, diploe,veins and sutures. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imgres?q=sutures&hl=en&sa=X&biw=1280&bih=866&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=vh1c-QopC6jiZM:&imgrefurl=http://www.upright-health.com/skull-diploe.html&docid=Pebzou5R-SPYNM&imgurl=http://www.upright-health.com/images/front-top-sutures.jpg&w=508&h=393&ei=iBCyTt2WKoXe0QHOnsyjBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=426&vpy=485&dur=5432&hovh=197&hovw=255&tx=79&ty=84&sig=114161933467987697203&page=11&tbnh=149&tbnw=213&start=223&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:223

Encyclopedia Britannica eb.com. (2011). Hyoid bone (anatomy). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/279422/hyoid-bone

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Buzzle.com. (2011). Ear diagram. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ear-diagram.html

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Image material: NIH National Institute for Health. (1997). Skull of a newborn:

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