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Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

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Page 1: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Axial SkeletonVertebral Column

composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Page 2: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Vertebral Column• Aka Spine or backbone• Formed from 26 irregular bones• Connected in a way that the flexible

curved structure is formed• Along with sternum and ribs, forms the

trunk of the body

Page 3: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Functions of the Vertebral Column1) Surrounds and protects

the spinal cord2) Provides attachment

points for the ribs and back and neck muscles

3)Transmits weight of the trunk to the lower limbs

Page 4: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Divisions

• Cervical - 7• Neck

• Thoracic - 12• Ribs

• Lumbar - 5• Lower back

• Sacrum - 5• Articulates with pelvic bones

• Coccyx – 4 (3-5)• Tailbone

Page 5: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Curvatures

• When viewed from the side, you see 4 slight bends or curvatures that give it an “S” shape.• Increases the resilience and flexibility

of the spine• Helps to absorb shock during walking• Protects the vertebrae from fracture

Page 6: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

•Cervical and Lumbar•Concave (curve in)

•Thoracic and Sacral•Convex (curve out)

Curvatures

Page 7: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Kyphosis

• Hunchback• Dorsally exaggerated thoracic

curvature• Common in elderly because

of osteoporosis• May also result from

tuberculosis of the spine, rickets, or osteomalacia

Page 8: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Lordosis

• Swayback• Accentuated lumbar curvature• Common in those with an increase in

abdominal weight• Men with potbellies• Pregnant women

• An attempt to preserve the center of gravity they throw their shoulders back

Page 9: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Scoliosis

• “twisted disease”• Abnormal lateral curvature

most often seen in thoracic region• Most common in girls during

late childhood

Page 10: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Types of Vertebrae

• Cervical

• Thoracic

• Lumbar

Page 11: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Atlas

• 1st cervical Vertebrae - C1

• Supports the head• Named for mythological Atlas who supported the world on his

shoulders• Ring of bone• No body or spinous process• Allows for “Yes” motion

Page 12: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Axis

• 2nd cervical Vertebrae – C2

• Has body and spinous process• Has a dens (odontoid process)• Missing body of the atlas which fuses during development

• Dens is a pivot that the atlas can rotate around allowing for “No” motion

Page 13: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Sacrum

• 5 fused bones

• Triangular

• Shapes the posterior wall of the pelvis

Page 14: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Coccyx• Tailbone

• 4 Fused bones (3-5)

• Slight support of pelvic organs

Page 15: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Unusually long coccyx

Page 16: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Body (Centrum)• Disc-shape; weight bearing (anterior) region

Body

Page 17: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Pedicle• “little feet”• Short bony

pillars• Project

posteriorly from body• Forms sides of

arch

Pedicle

Page 18: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Lamina

• Flattened plates

• Join to form the posterior portion of the arch

Lamina

Page 19: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Vertebral Arch

• Extends posteriorly from the body • Made up of the

pedicle and laminae• Body and arch

enclose the vertebral foramen

Vertebral Arch

Page 20: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Vertebral Foramen

• Formed from the vertebral arch and body

• Contains the spinal cord Vertebral

foramen

Page 21: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Spinous Process

• Median posterior projection• Seen at the

junction of the two laminae• Points of

muscle attachment

Spinous Process

Page 22: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Transverse Process• Extends laterally from each side of the arch• Points of muscle attachments

Transverse Process

Page 23: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Axis OnlyDens(odontoid process)

Dens acts as a pivot for the atlas. Allows you to rotate your head from side to side

Page 24: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Rib Articulations

Transverse costal facet Demifacet

Page 25: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Superior Articular Process• Seen on superior side of vertebra• Articulate with the inferior articular process of the

vertebra above it

Superior Articular Process

Page 26: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Inferior Articular Process• Seen on the inferior side of the vertebra• Articulate with the superior articular process of the

vertebra below it

Inferior Articular Process

Page 27: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Intervertebral Disc• Cushion-like pad that acts as a shock absorber during

activity• Allows the spine to flex, extend, and bend laterally• Thickest in the cervical and lumbar regions to allow

for greater movement• Flatten during the day so we are taller in the morning

than in the evening• No disc between first two cervical vertebrae

Page 28: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Transverse Costal Facet

• Facets on thoracic transverse process • Articulate with the tubercle of the rib

Page 29: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Axial SkeletonSternum & Ribs

Page 30: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Sternum (breastbone)Manubrium

Body

Xiphoid Process

Sternal Angle

Suprasternal Notch(Jugular Notch)

Clavicular Notch

Page 31: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Ribs!• 12 pairs• True ribs (1-7)• Directly attached to sternum

by hyaline cartilage (costal cartilage)

Page 32: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Ribs!• False Ribs (8-12)• Attached to the sternum indirectly by

costal cartilage, or no cartilaginous attachment• False (8-10)

• Indirect attachment

• Floating (11 & 12)• No Attachment

Page 33: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

Ribs

NeckConstricted region between head and tubercle

HeadArticulates with the thoracic vertebra at the body

Page 34: Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column composed of 26 bones of the 80 total that make up the Axial Skeleton

RibsBody

Main portion of the rib

TubercleArticulates with the thoracic vertebra at the transverse process