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1 The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton Dr. Gary Mumaugh Dr. Gary Mumaugh The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions Eighty bones segregated into three regions o Skull o Vertebral column o Bony thorax The Skull The Skull The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and facial bones by the cranium and facial bones Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscle head and neck muscle Facial bones Facial bones o Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth o Provide openings for the passage of air and food o Anchor the facial muscles of expression Anatomy of the Cranium Anatomy of the Cranium Eight cranial bones Eight cranial bones o two parietal two parietal o two temporal, two temporal, o one frontal, one occipital, one sphenoid, and one ethmoid one frontal, one occipital, one sphenoid, and one ethmoid o Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their weight weight

 · Web viewThe Axial Skeleton Dr. Gary Mumaugh The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax The Skull The skull, the body’s

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Page 1:  · Web viewThe Axial Skeleton Dr. Gary Mumaugh The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax The Skull The skull, the body’s

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The Axial Skeleton The Axial SkeletonDr. Gary MumaughDr. Gary Mumaugh

The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regionsEighty bones segregated into three regions

o Skullo Vertebral columno Bony thorax

The SkullThe Skull The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and

facial bones facial bones Cranium – protects theCranium – protects the

brain and is the site ofbrain and is the site of attachment for head andattachment for head and neck muscleneck muscle

Facial bonesFacial boneso Supply the

framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth

o Provide openings for the passage of air and food

o Anchor the facial muscles of expression

Anatomy of the CraniumAnatomy of the Cranium Eight cranial bones Eight cranial bones

oo two parietaltwo parietaloo two temporal, two temporal, oo one frontal, one occipital, one sphenoid, and one ethmoid one frontal, one occipital, one sphenoid, and one ethmoid oo Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their weightCranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their weight

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Anterior SkullAnterior Skull

Posterior SkullPosterior Skull

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Lateral SkullLateral Skull

Inferior SkullInferior Skull

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MandibleMandible The mandible (lower jawbone) is the largest, strongest bone of the faceThe mandible (lower jawbone) is the largest, strongest bone of the face

Maxillary BonesMaxillary Bones Medially fused bones that make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facialMedially fused bones that make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial

skeletonskeleton Facial keystone bones that articulate with all other facial bones except the mandibleFacial keystone bones that articulate with all other facial bones except the mandible

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Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses

Vertebral ColumnVertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible

curved structure resultscurved structure results Cervical vertebrae – 7 bones of the neck Thoracic vertebrae – 12 bones of the torso Lumbar vertebrae – 5 bones of the lower

back Sacrum – bone inferior to the lumbar

vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones

Vertebral Column: CurvaturesVertebral Column: Curvatures Posteriorly concave curvaturePosteriorly concave curvature

oo cervical and lumbarcervical and lumbar Posteriorly convex curvaturesPosteriorly convex curvatures

oo thoracic and sacralthoracic and sacral Abnormal spine curvaturesAbnormal spine curvatures

oo scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve)scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve)oo kyphosis (hunchback),kyphosis (hunchback),oo lordosis (swayback)lordosis (swayback)

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Vertebral Column: Intervertebral DiscsVertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Cushionlike pad composed of two partsCushionlike pad composed of two parts Nucleus pulposus – inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and

compressibility Annulus fibrosus – surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of

collagen and fibrocartilage

General Structure of Vertebrae General Structure of Vertebrae

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Vertebral ColumnVertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible

curved structure resultscurved structure results Cervical vertebrae – 7 bones of the neck Thoracic vertebrae – 12 bones of the torso Lumbar vertebrae – 5 bones of the lower back Sacrum – bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones

Cervical VertebraeCervical Vertebrae Seven vertebrae (CSeven vertebrae (C11-C-C77) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae CC33-C-C77 are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large,

triangular vertebral foraminatriangular vertebral foramina Each transverse process contains a transverse foramenEach transverse process contains a transverse foramen Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (CCervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C11))

oo The atlas has no body and no spinous processThe atlas has no body and no spinous processoo It consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral massesIt consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral massesoo The superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condylesThe superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles

Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (CCervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C22))oo The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical

vertebraevertebraeoo Unique to the axis is the dens, or Unique to the axis is the dens, or odontoid processodontoid process, which projects superiorly , which projects superiorly

from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlasfrom the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas

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oo The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas

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ThoracicThoracic VertebraeVertebrae There areThere are

twelve vertebrae (Ttwelve vertebrae (T11-T-T1212) all of which articulate with ribs) all of which articulate with ribs

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Lumbar VertebraeLumbar Vertebrae The five lumbar vertebrae (LThe five lumbar vertebrae (L11-L-L55) are located in the small of the back and have an ) are located in the small of the back and have an

enhanced weight-bearing functionenhanced weight-bearing function They have short, thick pedicles and laminae, flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes,They have short, thick pedicles and laminae, flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes,

and a triangular-shaped vertebral foramenand a triangular-shaped vertebral foramen Orientation of articular facets locks the lumbar vertebrae together to provide stabilityOrientation of articular facets locks the lumbar vertebrae together to provide stability

SacrumSacrum Consists of five fused vertebrae (S1-S5), which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis It articulates with L5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfaces of the hip bones

Coccyx (Tailbone)Coccyx (Tailbone) The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases three to five) fused vertebrae that

articulate superiorly with the sacrum

Posterior SacrumPosterior Sacrum

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Anterior SacrumAnterior Sacrum

Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, The thoracic cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally,

and the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorlyand the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly FunctionsFunctions

o Forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vesselso Supports the shoulder girdles and upper limbso Provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscleso Uses intercostal muscles to lift and depress the thorax during breathing

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Sternum (Breastbone)Sternum (Breastbone) A dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thoraxA dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax Anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, Anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle,

and the xiphisternal jointand the xiphisternal joint

RibsRibs There are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaring sides of the thoracic cageThere are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaring sides of the thoracic cage All ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebraeAll ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae The superior 7 pair (true, or vertebrosternal ribs) attach directly to the sternum via The superior 7 pair (true, or vertebrosternal ribs) attach directly to the sternum via

costal cartilagescostal cartilages Ribs 8-10 (false, or vertebrocondral ribs) attach indirectly to the sternum via costal Ribs 8-10 (false, or vertebrocondral ribs) attach indirectly to the sternum via costal

cartilage cartilage Ribs 11-12 (floating, or vertebral ribs) have no anterior attachmentRibs 11-12 (floating, or vertebral ribs) have no anterior attachment

The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdlesThe appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body trunkPectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbsPelvic girdle secures the lower limbs

Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles)Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) The pectoral girdles consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulaeThe pectoral girdles consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulae

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They attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for They attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movementmaximum movement

They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbsThey provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs

Clavicles (Collarbones)Clavicles (Collarbones) The clavicles are slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thoraxThe clavicles are slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thorax The acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula, and the sternal (medial) end The acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula, and the sternal (medial) end

articulates with the sternumarticulates with the sternum They provide attachment points for numerous muscles, and act as braces to hold theThey provide attachment points for numerous muscles, and act as braces to hold the

scapulae and arms out laterally away from the bodyscapulae and arms out laterally away from the body

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Scapulae (Shoulder Blades)Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) The scapulae are triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, The scapulae are triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage,

between the second and seventh ribsbetween the second and seventh ribs Scapulae have three borders and three anglesScapulae have three borders and three angles Major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous Major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous

fossae, the spine, the acromion, and the coracoid processfossae, the spine, the acromion, and the coracoid process

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The Upper LimbThe Upper Limb The upper limb consists of the arm (brachium), forearm (antebrachium), and hand The upper limb consists of the arm (brachium), forearm (antebrachium), and hand

(manus)(manus) Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limbThirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm - BrachiumArm - Brachium

oo The humerus is the sole bone of the armThe humerus is the sole bone of the armoo It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the

elbowelbow Forearm - AntebrachiumForearm - Antebrachium

oo The bones of the forearm are the radius and ulna The bones of the forearm are the radius and ulna oo They articulate proximally with the humerus and distally with the wrist bonesThey articulate proximally with the humerus and distally with the wrist bonesoo They also articulate with each other proximally and distally at small radioulnarThey also articulate with each other proximally and distally at small radioulnar

jointsjointsoo Interosseous membrane connects the two bones along their entire lengthInterosseous membrane connects the two bones along their entire lengthoo Bones of the ForearmBones of the Forearm

UlnaUlna The ulna lies medially in the forearm and is slightly longer than The ulna lies medially in the forearm and is slightly longer than

the radius (non thumb side)the radius (non thumb side) Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerusForms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus

RadiusRadius The radius lies opposite the ulna and is thin at its proximal end, The radius lies opposite the ulna and is thin at its proximal end,

widened distally (thumb side)widened distally (thumb side) The superior surface of the head articulates with the humerusThe superior surface of the head articulates with the humerus

Hand - ManusHand - Manusoo Carpals - Carpals - Wrist bonesoo Metacarpals - Metacarpals - Palmoo Phalanges - Phalanges - Fingers

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Pelvic Girdle (Hip)Pelvic Girdle (Hip) The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis The pelvisThe pelvis

o Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body

o Transmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbso Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis

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Pelvic Girdle (Hip)Pelvic Girdle (Hip) Ilium Ilium

oo The ilium is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the hip boneThe ilium is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the hip bone It consists of a body and a superior winglike portion called the ala The broad posterolateral surface is called the gluteal surface

oo The auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint)The auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) IschiumIschium

oo The ischium forms the posteroinferior part of the hip boneThe ischium forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone

Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic StructureComparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female Female

oo For childbearing For childbearing MaleMale

oo For support of heavier male build and stronger musclesFor support of heavier male build and stronger muscles

Female Female Male Male

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The Lower LimbThe Lower Limb The three segments of the lower limb are the thigh, leg, and footThe three segments of the lower limb are the thigh, leg, and foot They carry the weight of the erect body, and are subjected to exceptional forces They carry the weight of the erect body, and are subjected to exceptional forces

when one jumps or runswhen one jumps or runs

FemurFemur The sole bone of the thigh is the femurThe sole bone of the thigh is the femur The largest and strongest bone in the bodyThe largest and strongest bone in the body It articulates proximally with the hip and distally with the tibia and fibulaIt articulates proximally with the hip and distally with the tibia and fibula

LegLeg The tibia and fibula form the skeleton of the legThe tibia and fibula form the skeleton of the leg They are connected to each other by the interosseous membraneThey are connected to each other by the interosseous membrane They articulate with the femur proximally and with the ankle bones distallyThey articulate with the femur proximally and with the ankle bones distally

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Skeletal Anatomy Mnemonics

Facial Bones

Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!o Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Maxilla, Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal

Carpal Bones

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cannot Handle or Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver's Hand or She Looks Too Pretty, Try To Catch Her or She Like To Play, Try To Catch Her or

o Proximal row, lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiformo Distal row, lateral-to-medial: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

Tarsal Bones

Tall Californian Navy Medcial Interns Lay Cuties or Tiger Cubs Need MILC

o In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to lateral): Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular, Medial cuneiform, Intermediate

cuneiform, Lateral cuneifrom, Cuboid

Tibia vs. Fibula – which is lateral?

FibuLA is LAteral.

Recognizing and Thoracic vs. Lumbar Vertebra

Examine vertebral body shape:o Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax.o Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area.