Audience Survey

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<p>ERISAUDIENCE SURVEY</p> <p>ETHIOPIA 2011DAVID WARD SELAM AYALEW</p> <p>This report has been funded by the British Embassy in Ethiopia and the Department for International Development (DFID), UK</p> <p>Copyright for this survey ERIS and authors, 2011. Permissions: The survey either in full or parts of may be reproduced freely as long as authorship is fully acknowledged. Cover and design by designlab. Recommended citation: Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011. Ward, D., with Ayalew, S. Electoral Reform International Services, 2011.</p> <p>Electoral Reform International ServicesElectoral Reform International Services (ERIS) is a not-for-profit non governmental organisation which provides support to strengthen democratic institutions, processes and culture around the world. ERIS has worked in over 70 countries and has provided experts for international agencies, governments, election management bodies, non governmental organisations, and other key democracy institutions. ERIS covers the full spectrum of democracy assistance and advice. We: design, create, and manage major projects; provide experts to assist election management bodies and other key democracy institutions, the media, and civil society; shortlist observers on behalf of the British Government for the international election observation missions and work with citizen observer groups; offer a range of training courses (including for election observers); organise major conferences and publish reports. In future ERIS plans to collaborate in particular with grassroots organisations which are working to prevent election related conflict, to hold elected representatives to account, to empower women, ethnic and religious minorities, and in general to promote citizen participation in the democratic process.</p> <p>Table of ContentsList of Tables Background Demographic profile for sampleChart 1: Marital status of respondents Chart 2: Religion of respondents Chart 3: Education profile and literacy levels of respondents Chart 4: Occupation of respondents</p> <p>5 67 7 8 9</p> <p>General media consumptionChart 5: Sources of information Chart 6: Information sources by region Chart 7: Number of media sources used by respondents Chart 8: Zero information source users by region Chart 9: Most reliable and important sources of information Chart 10: Frequency of using information sources Chart 11: Response to the question when did you use the following information sources? Chart 12: Population with access to television Chart 13: Population with access to radio Chart 14: Access to radio and television by region Chart 15: Newspaper access by region Chart 16: Locations people listen to radio Chart 17: Locations people watch television Chart 18: Who decides what to listen to on radio? Chart 19: Who decides what to watch on television?</p> <p>1010 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18</p> <p>Radio consumptionChart 20: Regional breakdown of radio listening Chart 21: Peak time listening times Chart 22: Listening trends throughout the day (Monday-Friday) by region Chart 23: Listening trends throughout the day (Sat-Sunday) by region Chart 24: Programme genre listened to on radio in the last three months Chart 25: Top 10 most popular radio programmes that respondents mentioned by title Chart 26: Most listened to radio stations in past 3 months Chart 27: Most listened to radio stations in past 3 months in Addis Ababa Chart 28: Respondents favourite radio stations nationwide Chart 29: Respondents favourite domestic radio stations in Addis Ababa Chart 30: Response to which radio station did you listen to yesterday?</p> <p>1919 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 25</p> <p>Television consumptionChart 31: Regional breakdown of television viewing Chart 32: Peak viewing times Chart 33: Viewing trends throughout the day by region (Monday- Friday)</p> <p>2727 28 28</p> <p>Chart 34: Viewing times throughout the day by region (Sat- Sunday) Chart 35: Top most viewed programme genres Chart 36: Top five most popular television programmes that respondents mentioned by title Chart 37: Television channels watched in the past 7 days Chart 38: Respondents favourite television channel</p> <p>29 30 30 31 31</p> <p>NewspapersChart 39: Newspaper readership Chart 40: Awareness of newspaper titles Chart 41: Newspapers read by respondents Chart 42: Favourite newspaper titles Chart 43: How often do you buy a newspaper? Chart 44: Where do you acquire your newspaper?</p> <p>3333 34 34 35 35 35</p> <p>InternetChart 45: Internet diffusion by region Chart 46: Nationwide Internet users Chart 47: Frequency of using the Internet</p> <p>3737 37 38</p> <p>AnnexSampling information</p> <p>3939</p> <p>List of TablesTable 1: Ethnic group of respondents Table 2: Monthly income of respondents Table 3: Barriers to listening/watching radio /television Table 4: List of radio stations (listened to and favourite) by region Table 5: List of television channels (viewed and favourite) by region Table 6: List of newspapers (read and favourite) by region 6 8 16 26 32 36</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>5</p> <p>BackgroundThis survey is based on interviews with adults above the age of 15 in 3,999 households across Ethiopia. The sampling methodology is based on a multi-stage random sample design to ensure full representation across all regions and key demographic groups. Sample districts were chosen to be representative of the geographic, ethnic and socio-economic diversity of the country. Fieldwork was conducted by ERIS and carried out using specially recruited enumerators during October and November 2010. The scope of this survey was nationwide, including both urban Tigray region and rural Ethiopia. All nine regions and two city Afar region administrations were covered in the survey as listed Amhara region in the box adjacent (further details on the sample Oromia region are included in the annex). Somali region Benishangul Gumuz region For the analysis data was weighted in line with the SNNP region distribution of regions and centre type: urban/ Gambella region rural. This was based on population estimates Harari region in the 2007 Census. Households were selected Addis Ababa Administrative City randomly within each sample Woreda. Dire Dawa Administrative City</p> <p>Ethiopia Television Ethiopian Radio FM Addis 97.1 Addis TV and FM 96.3 Amhara FM and FM Bahir Dar Dire Dawa FM 106.1 and Dire Dawa Television Oromia TV, Oromia radio and Finfine FM Harar FM Mekelle FM South FM Afro FM</p> <p>Dimitsi Woyane Tigray (DWET) Fana Radio and Fana FM Sheger FM Zami FM Argoba radio Kombolcha radio Kefa radio Waghimra radio Sudie radio Jimma radio Korrie radio Kembata radio</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>6</p> <p>Demographic profile for sampleThe sample was equally split to achieve a 50:50 gender balance and as a result of the survey selecting those above 15 years of age based on the Census a higher proportion of younger age groups are represented: 51.9% of the sample are between 15-30 years, 29.9%, 31-45 years and 18.2%, 46-59+ years. The average age of the sampled respondents is 33 years with the youngest being 15 years and the oldest 73 years of age. A large proportion of respondents were married and less than a third were single. Nine out of ten single respondents were aged between 15 and 30 years. Table 1: Ethnic group of respondents</p> <p>EthnicityAmhara Oromo Tigrie Guraghe Somali Sidama Wolayita Hadia Gamo Gedeo Afar Burji</p> <p>%36.5% 24.5% 6.9% 5.7% 5.4% 4.4% 3.0% 2.6% 2.3% 2.2% 1.7% 1.6%</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>7</p> <p>Chart 1: Marital status of respondents0%</p> <p>Single Married without any children Married with child/children Widowed Divorced/separated52% 6%</p> <p>6% 27%</p> <p>9%</p> <p>Living with a Partner</p> <p>The sampling also achieved a balance between ethnic groups. Table 1 lists major ethnic groups thatare included in the survey. The remaining 3.2% of the sample is composed of members of the Siltie, Konso, Kefa, Agnwak, Gumuz, Guji, Kenbata, Harari, Nuer, Kora and Dorze groups. Ethiopia is a religiously diverse country with Islam and Christianity being practiced widely. Half of respondents are Orthodox Christians and the remaining half composed of Muslim, Protestant, Catholics and other religious beliefs. Chart 2: Religion of respondents1%</p> <p>Orthodox Christian Catholic Protestant Muslim Other</p> <p>28%</p> <p>54%</p> <p>17%</p> <p>0%</p> <p>Over half of respondents have attended formal education. Of these 45% are qualified up to eighth grade. About a third of respondents attended grades between 9 and 12 and only 2% obtained a first degree or above qualification. School attendance was lower among females (49.7%) and rural respondents (52.9%) than males (68.1%) and urban respondents (84.2%). Regionally, Addis Ababa (92.5%), Tigray (72.7%) and Gambella (72.1%) record the highest percentages of formal education attendance, while Afar (15.2%), Somali (23.9%) and Benishangul (26.9%) were low.</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>8</p> <p>Chart 3: Education profile and literacy levels of respondentsFirst Degree and above Diploma/Certicate 9 - 12 Grade 5 - 8 Grade 1 - 4 Grade 15.25% 2.05% 10.46% 33.48% 38.76%</p> <p>Attended formal education 58.8%</p> <p>Able to read and write</p> <p>55.4% 41.2% 44.6%</p> <p>Yes</p> <p>No</p> <p>Over one third of respondents are farmers and a very small proportion of respondents are employed in the government, non government or private businesses. A significantly high proportion of respondents are engaged in the informal employment sector, which is presented as other. Just over one third of respondents have monthly earnings of below 500 Birr, a further 29% between 500-2,000 Birr and a significant number do not have regular income. Table 2: Monthly income of respondents</p> <p>Income groups in ETB per monthBelow 200 Birr 201 - 500 Birr 501 1,000 Birr 1001 2,000 Birr 2001 5,000 Birr 5001 10,000 Birr Above 10,000 Birr Do not have Income Total</p> <p>%13.5% 23.6% 18.6% 9.9% 1.7% 0.3% 0.0% 32.3% 100%</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>9</p> <p>Chart 4: Occupation of respondentsFarmer Other Student Pensioner/retired Unemployed/ dependent Odd Jobs Own business Private business sector NGO employee Government employee 1.1% 5.7% 1.5% 4.6% 2.3% 4.6% 2.5% 14.4% 28.3% 35.2%</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>10</p> <p>General media consumptionInformation sourcesWhilst the public receives information from a variety of sources a majority of 80.1% of respondents in the survey cite radio as their primary source for receiving news and information, followed by television and word of mouth from friends and family and community meetings. Print and the Internet are the least common sources of information from mass media. Nationwide radio is the single source of information most frequently mentioned as a source of information. Chart 5: Sources of informationRadio TV WOM Community meeting Church/Mosque Mobile Newspaper Billboard SatelliteTV Police Internet None Other 80.1% 61.6% 49.5% 35.9% 16.9% 16.3% 13.3% 4.0% 3.8% 2.7% 2.6% 2.3% 2.1%</p> <p>In rural areas particularly radio is widely consumed and 78.7% of rural respondents answered radio was a key source of information in these areas. Television is the most frequently mentioned source of information in urban areas with 87% of the sample in cities responding that television was a source of information. Non mass media sources of information remain very popular among both rural and urban communities with respondents suggesting it remained a source of information in 52% of responses from rural areas and 36% in urban areas from family and friends.</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>11</p> <p>Community meetings were also significant sources of information with urban respondents replying that meetings were a source of information in 19.7% of cases and in rural communities this rises to 39%. Although far smaller in respect to the number of mentions newspapers, mobile telephone and religious gatherings were also highlighted as sources of news and information. The use of newspapers and magazines as sources of information is nearly four times higher among urban (34%) respondents than their rural (9.3%) counterparts. Between the three most significant means of communications there are considerable differences between regions in terms of the degree which they individually act as a source of information and news. In Addis Ababa and Tigray television is the most frequently mentioned means in which the public receive news and information. A slightly higher proportion of respondents from Addis Ababa (95.7%) and Tigray (69.8%) cite television as opposed to radio as a source of information. In contrast, respondents in other regions highlighted radio as the most frequently referred to medium as a source of information and news. This was the case for responses in Amhara, Benishangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa, Gambella, Harari, Oromia and SNNPR with a high in SNNPR of 89.8% to a low of 29.6% in Gambella. Chart 6: Information sources by regionWord of mouth Dire Dawa Addis Ababa Harari Gambella SNNPR Benishangul Gumuz Somali Oromia Amhara Afar Tigray36% 40% 70% 68% 17% 46% 52% 25% 30% 4% 24% 23% 35% 46%</p> <p>TV</p> <p>Radio55% 61% 65% 96% 94% 51%</p> <p>30% 45% 65% 90%</p> <p>68% 96% 52% 61% 67% 78% 85% 90% 77%</p> <p>At the other end of the scale are the low mass media users in Afar and Somali regions where traditional oral communication is cited as the single most important Afar (90.4%) and Somali (96.4%). In both of these cases where television or oral communications are the most cited mediums radio is selected as the second most important means of receiving information and news. The majority of the sample use a very limited number of sources and in relation to media sources these were almost universally either television or radio. On average, most of the sample uses two media sources of information: predominantly radio and television. Almost three out of ten respondents rely on a single media source of information. A total of 14% of respondents reported that they did not rely on the mass media at all to receive information, out of which 2.3% said they do not seek any kind of information from any sources.</p> <p>Audience Survey Ethiopia 2011</p> <p>12</p> <p>Chart 7: Number of media sources used by respondents28.7 25.3</p> <p>15.4</p> <p>14.9</p> <p>7.1 2.3 0 1 2 3 4 5 3.5 1.5 7</p> <p>0.7 8</p> <p>0.4 9</p> <p>0.2 10</p> <p>6</p> <p>Chart 8: Zero information source users by regionDire Dawa Addis Ababa Harari Gambella SNNPR Benishangul Gumuz Somali Oromia Amhara Afar Tigray 10.0% 14.2% 12.9% 22.9% 6.6% 30.7% 45.1% 0.4% 39.9% 58.1% 19.6%</p> <p>Media usage in the developing regional states of Gambella, Somali, Benishangul and Afar was very low. More than half of respondents from Gambella (58.1%) were none mass media users and there remain a significant number of the population that do not use mass media for information purposes in the majority of regional states. A significant number of respondents from Somali (45.1%) and Harari (39.9%) also fall under this group of non information seekers.</p> <p>Reliability of information sourcesThe publics selection of the most important and reliable sources of information follows patterns in their consumption...</p>