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1 © Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008 ANIMAL ENRICHMENT Lorne Roberts; CAC; Unitec; 2014

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Text of 1 © Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008 ANIMAL ENRICHMENT Lorne Roberts; CAC;...

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008ANIMAL ENRICHMENTLorne Roberts; CAC; Unitec; 2014

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • ENRICHMENTAn elephants rich array of diverse individual and social behaviour is as much a part of what makes it an elephant as its trunk and huge feet.

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Enrichment ProgrammeEnrichment 101The Big NamesWhats in a Word?What are we Enriching? Ignorance is BlissWhat you see!The Challenge of Challenging

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • Enrichment 101Animals in Unnatural Human Environments and Dependent on Humans for Survival* Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • Human environments may be extremely bland unstimulating and unrecognisable for animals Enrichment 101* Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • Enrichment 101Animals require access to environments that stimulate them to function behaviourally, physiologically and cognitively similarly to their native counterparts* Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • Captive v Wild EnvironmentsHuge variation within environmentLarge-scale changes of environment Natural pressures are life & deathHabitat size - extensiveSmall variation within environmentSmall-scale changes of environment

    Natural pressures of little significanceHabitat size - reduced

  • Captive v Wild EnvironmentsUnpredicatableRequirement for choiceNatural for species

    Must work for survival

    ComplexPredictableLimited choice

    Unnatural for speciesLimited activity required for survivalSimple

  • Must Understand Their Natural EnvironmentFoods and their presentationEcologyClimateSubstrate and TopographyConspecifics/Contraspecifics type and numberAspect

  • Enrichment 101Enrichment is the process by which animals held in human environments may be stimulated to behave, think and function naturally across natural timeframes* Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008An Animal Husbandry Principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive animal care by identifying and providing the environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological, physical and physiological well-being

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • EnrichmentPsychological, Physical and PhysiologicalWell-beingCaptiveBreedingEducationof publicReleaseProgrammes

  • Natural PressuresInnapropriate for Captive EnvironmentsActual Predator/prey interactionsStarvation and thirstMalnutritionDisease/InjuryExtreme environmental conditions (???)Constant or extreme conspecific or contrapecific aggression

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008The Big NamesHediger, H. 1950. Wild Animals in Captivity. London: Butterworths.Hediger, H. 1955. Studies of the Psychology and Behaviour of Captive Animals in Zoos and Circuses. London: Butterworths.Hediger, H. 1969. Man and Animal in the Zoo. New York: Lawrence/Delacorte Press.Markowitz, H. 1982. Behavioural Enrichment in the Zoo. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008The Big NamesChamove, AS, & Anderson, JR. 1989. Examining environmental enrichment. In:Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates. New Jersey: Noyes Publications.Kleiman, DG, et al.1996. Wild Mammals in Captivity Principles and Techniques. London: University of Chicago Press.Shepherdson, DJ, et al. 1998. Second Nature Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Young, RJ, et al. 2003. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Animal enrichment research has escalated dramatically in the past 20 yearsAnd with it certain terminology has become fashionableOften, if the terminology is commonplace within the literature, this drives the practices

    If this is true of enrichment, have we missed something?Whats in a word?

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Possible confusion

    Environmental Enrichment

    versus

    Behavioural Enrichment

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Enrichment:Environmental enrichment is a concept which describes how the environments of captive animals can be changed for the benefit of the inhabitants. Behavioural opportunities that may arise or increase as a result of environmental enrichment can be appropriately described as behavioural enrichment Shepherdson, DJ (1994)

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Enrichment:Environmental enrichment is an animal husbandry principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive animal care by identifying and providing the environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological wellbeingShepherdson, DJ (1998)

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Enrichment:Environmental enrichment is a process for improving or enhancing zoo animal environments and care within the context of their inhabitants behavioral biology and natural history. It is a dynamic process in which changes to structures and husbandry practices are made with the goal of increasing behavioral choices to animals and drawing out their species appropriate behaviors and abilities, thus enhancing animal welfareBHAG (1999)

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Environmental enrichment is just as important as daily feeding and cleaning," says animal keeper/trainer Niki Ciezki. "It provides stimulation for the animals mental health by engaging them in natural behaviors they would display in the wild, Ciezki has been with the Phoenix Zoo for almost four years, and is the chair of the behavioral enrichment committee. http://www.azfamily.com/pets/zoo/stories/KTVKLNews20070626_behavioral-enrichment.17d9db6c.html

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Is it all the same? Isnt all behavioural enrichment environmental enrichment?

    Are they distinct?

    Whats in a word?EnvironmentalBehaviouralEnvironmentalBehavioural

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Is there a common ground?

    If not all environmental enrichment is behavioural enrichment, whats left?

    Whats in a word?EnvironmentalEnvironmentalBehaviouralBehavioural

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?Can we not eschew obfuscation and espouse elucidation?

    Can we avoid ambiguity and adopt clarity?

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008Whats in a word?

    Can we just use the words:

    Animal Enrichment?

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008What are we enriching?Regardless of the previous definitions, uses and arguments;

    A majority of the literature, research and practices involves overt and sometimes measurable behavioural changes

    IS THIS WHAT A MAJORITY OF THE BRAINS CAPACITY IS INVOLVED WITH?

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008What are we enriching?DataDataDataDataDataDataINTERPRETRelevant Responses

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008What are we enriching?But, the amount of stimuli in an enriched environment is huge!!

    The brain detects novel stimuli by continuously monitoring its environment, ignoring stimuli that remain unchanged but immediately attending to anything that changes.

    Neuroscience by MC on November 30th, 2006

    Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008

  • * Unitec New Zealand - L Roberts, REEC, Auckland, 2008What are we enriching?An Exercise - Think about your journey in today.How many other people have you encountered already?How many cars that were easily visible to you were red?How many different brands of perfume/aftershave have you smelled today?How many paving stones fit the width of the pavement you walked on?How many houses were tagged with graffiti?What cloud type was predominant in the sky?How many bird

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