subject : informatics practice. chapter 1 hardware and concept . school type : cbse (central board of secondary education.)
- 1. Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to your computer or something that can be physically touched. Most hardware will contain a circuit board, ICs, and other electronics. A perfect example of hardware is a computer monitor, which is an output device that lets you see what you're doing on the computer. Without any hardware, your computer would not exist, and software would not be able to run. In the image to the right, is a webcam and an example of an external hardware peripheral that What Is Hardware? Back
2. A hardware is the physical component which is use to do some mechanical work. Hardware is the physical part of a device which performs operations according to the need. Now we have hardwired control and micro programmed control for any hardware. The basic difference is this in the hardwired control we make the hardware work using flip flops and gates while in case of micro programmed we insert sequence of instructions in the chip to make the hardware work. Hardwired is Faster and complex .Micro programmed is Cheaper and slower. Back 3. Motherboard This is the most important type of computer hardware. It is a circuit board, whereon different parts of the system are set up. All input devices work when they are connected to the motherboard. RAM, CPU, and other crucial peripherals are installed on the computer motherboard. Random Access Memory (RAM) The RAM is a small chip that fits on the motherboard. It does the job of storing data on a temporary basis. RAM chips are generally available from 256 MB to 6 GB or more and are upgradeable. The more the RAM, the faster the computer system will function. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is a small chip installed on the motherboard that does the job of running computer programs. The speed of computer functioning also depends a lot on the processor's capacity. Without the CPU, you will not Back 4. Back 5. In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, sound card and hard drive. 6. Keyboard Keyboard is a standard input device. It is a data entry platform of a computer. A computer key board is a sophisticated electromechanical component designed to create specialized electronic codes (scan codes) when a key is pressed. These codes are transmitted along the cables to computer system unit or terminal, where the incoming code is analyzed and converted in to the appropriate computer usable code. Keyboards have five distinct groups of keys: Standard type writer keys: resembles a typewriter Function keys: The top row keys from F1 to F10 or F12 Cursor movement keys: Arrow keys, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down Numeric keys: a keypad at the right to make it easy to enter numbers Special purpose keys: Ctrl, Alt, Shift, Del, Insert 7. Mouse: A mouse is a device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard on flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the mouse tail; and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. Mice contain at least one button and sometimes as many as three, which have different functions depending on what program is running. Some newer mice also include a scroll wheel for scrolling through long documents. Mouse was first invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1963. 8. Hard- Drive A hard disk drive is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. An Hard Disk Drive retains its data even when powered off. Data is read in a random-access manner, meaning individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than sequentially. An Hard Drive consists of one or more rigid ("hard") rapidly rotating disks (platters) with magnetic heads arranged on a moving 9. Sound Card A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection. 10. Scanner: A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand- held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only, or color. Very high resolution scanners can be used if you need to print scanned image in high- resolution, but lower resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobes Photoshop product, that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image. Back 11. It is the unit of computer system that sends information out of the computer or the unit of computer system that provides the result of processing to the users is output unit. This unit receives information from CPU and converts into suitable human readable form. Monitor, Plotter, Printer, Projector, Speaker etc. are the output devices. An output device is any peripheral device that converts machine-readable information into people-readable form such as a monitor, printer, plotter and voice output device. Example: Monitor, speaker and Plotters 12. Monitor A computer monitor is also called display screen or video display terminal (VDT). Text and Images are displayed on monitors by individual dots called pixels. A pixel is the tiny blinking material on computer screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. A pixel is the smallest unit on the screen. The density of dots determines the clarity of the images known as resolution. A screen resolution 1024 x 768 means that it has 1024 dots in one line and 768 lines in one screen. Another measure of display resolution is a dot pitch. 13. Plotter A plotter is a special-purpose output device that draws images with ink pens. That is, the plotter is a graphics printer for making sophisticated graphs, charts, maps, and three-dimensional graphics as well as high-quality colored documents. It can also produce larger size of documents. 14. Speakers Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers external to a computer, that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker. They often have a low-power internal amplifier. The standard audio connection is a 3.5 mm (approximately 1/8 inch) stereo phone connector often color-coded lime green (following the PC 99 standard) for computer sound cards. A few use an RCA connector for input. There are also USB speakers which are powered from the 5 volts at 500 milliamps provided by the USB port, allowing about 2.5 watts of output power. Computer speakers were introduced by Altec Lansing in 1990. 15. Printer In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a representation of an electronic document on physical media such as paper or transparency film. Many printers are local peripherals connected directly to a nearby personal computer. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. Some printers can print documents stored on memory cards or from digital cameras and scanners. Multifunction printers (MFPs) include a scanner and can copy paper documents or send a fax; these are also called multi-function devices (MFD), or all-in-one (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their many features. 16. Headphones Headphones are a pair of small loudspeakers that are designed to be held in place close to a user's ears. Headphones either have wires for connection to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD player, portable media player or mobile phone, or have a wireless receiver, which is used to pick up signal without using a cable. They are sometimes known as earspeakers or, colloquially, cans.The alternate in-ear versions are known as earphones or earbuds. In the context of telecommunication, a headset is a combination of headphone and microphone.