The Biomechanics of Sprinting

  • View
    23.021

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Graham Pilkington & Martyn Jones Presntation at Athletics NI Coaching Conference

Text of The Biomechanics of Sprinting

  • The Biomechanics of Sprinting
  • Starting Biomechanics
  • Starting
    • Aim development of max horizontal velocity
    • Achieved by placing body in best biomechanical position to apply force
  • Leg Positioning
    • Right side of brain involved in detection and identification of signal
    • Left side execution of movement
    • Right leg controlled by left side of brain & vice versa.
    • RT 26ms better with left leg as rear leg
    • MT 104ms better with right leg as rear leg (Eikenberry, 2008)
  • Types of Sprint Starts
    • Aim to develop max impulse
    • Impulse = Force x Time
    • Distance between blocks bullet (50cm)
    • Medium best best combination of body position to develop force and time on blocks
  • Pedal Angle/Foot Placement
    • Stretch Shortening Cycle
    • Front Block - >45 deg
    • Front Spikes in ground
    • Rear Block low as flexibility allows (c35 deg)
    • Foot position depends upon pedal height
  • Set Position
    • Shoulders over hands elbows not locked
    • Hips above shoulders
    • Flat back neutral head position
    • Lower legs c45 degree
    • Front knee 90 110 degree
    • Rear knee 120 135 degree
    • Body weight evenly on feet and hands
    • Hold breath/tighten stomach muscles
  • After the Gun
    • Focus on motor task front arm/rear leg
    • Hips projecting forwards not up
    • Arms above parallel
    • Front arm forearm lead
    • Rear arm straight arm sweep back
    • Low rear heel recovery
    • c45 degree take off angle
  • Determining Best Start Position for your Athlete
    • Fit the biomechanical model
    • Time to 10m
    • Changes with strength/growth
  • Teaching the Sprint Start a Practical Guide for Young Athletes
  • KEEP IT SIMPLE!
    • Break the start down in to phases
    • Focus their attention on one or two key points and develop over time
    • Finally bring the phases together chaining
    • Whole Part Whole?
  • Teaching The Phases:-
    • Setting up the blocks
      • Which foot first ?
      • Distance from the line to the blocks
  • Which Foot First?
  • Distance from the line to the Blocks
    • Foot Length
      • Winkler/Seagrave/Mann Method
      • 3 Feet to rear Block and 2 feet to front Block
    • Leg Length
      • Straight Leg to rear Block and 60% of this to the front Block
    It is all about getting the athlete into the right position
  • Set Position
    • What is important
    • Stability / Core Strength
    • Upper Body Strength
    • Foot Strength
    • Focus
  • How are these developed?
    • Stability
    • In this phase basic core exercises (examples)
    • Upper body strength
    • Basic press up etc
    • Foot Strength
    • How important is this?
  • Foot Strength Exercises
  • Focus
    • How important is reaction time ?
    • Use as a focus cue rather than train.
  • Drive Phase Mechanics
  • Summary of the Drive Phase 75% of total acceleration achieved in first 7 steps-The Drive Phase The application of Horizontal force is the key component in the drive phase Piston action for heel recovery in this phase of sprinting.
  • Transition Phase Mechanics
  • Drive Phase Mechanics
  • Coming out of the Blocks
    • What is important ?
    • Explosion of hips
    • Stable movement with a low foot recovery
    • Foot strength
    • Control of core during movement
    • Ability for the muscles to extend and contract quickly
  • How do we train these
    • Explosion of Hips
  • How do we train these
    • Explosion of Hips
  • Low Foot Recovery
    • Low Walking
    • Running Drills
    • Wall Drills
    • Exaggerated Marker Runs
  • Low Foot Recovery
  • Low Foot Recovery
    • Video of Exaggerated Marker Drill
  • Control of Core during movement
  • Control of Core during movement
  • Control of Core during movement
    • Single leg exercises
      • Squats
      • Controlled Hopping
      • Lunges along a line
      • Glut Strengthening
      • Hip Strengthening
  • Ability for the muscle to extend and contract quickly
    • Basic Plyometrics
      • Hopping
      • Squat Jumps
      • Skipping
      • Hop Scotch
      • Ladder Exercises
      • Low hurdles
      • Speed Bounce
  • Something a bit more controversial! If we expect our athletes to be able to perform these complex movement skills when do we practice them?
  • Something a bit more controversial? If we expect our athletes to perform these movements during a race/training session how do we prepare them to execute these complex movements?