Interactivity, games and gamification creating engaged learners

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Karl Kapp's deck for Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners

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  • 1. 8/5/2012Interactivity, Games and Gamification:Creating Engaged Learners By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction August 7, 2012Twitter:@kkapp1

2. 8/5/2012Torn from the book2 3. 8/5/2012 Google Kapp Notes September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game DeveloperJuly 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning 3 4. 8/5/2012 Agenda12 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3What elements from games can beadded to traditional e-learning?4 5. 8/5/2012Lets PlayFact or Fishy 5 6. 8/5/2012 How to Play Ill make a statement. You decide if the statement is a Fact or if itsnot really true (false) Fishy. Use whiteboard feature to write your initialsin the appropriate column. See how many you can get correct. 6 7. 8/5/2012 Do you understand what to dofor the Fact or Fishy Game?Fact Fishy 7 8. 8/5/2012 Lets PlayFactorFishy8 9. 8/5/2012When compared to traditional training, game/simulationtraining yields a 9% higher retention rate .FactFishy 9 10. 8/5/2012Fact Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 10 11. 8/5/2012Percentages of ImpactIt wasnt the game, it wasRetentionlevel of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in14% the game leads to learning. Declarative11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 11 12. 8/5/2012Game/Simulations must to be entertaining to be educational.Fact Fishy 12 13. 8/5/2012Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? FISHY, NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 13 14. 8/5/2012Simulation/games build more confidence for on the jobapplication of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.FactFishy14 15. 8/5/2012Fact: Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higherconfidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 15 16. 8/5/2012Instructional games are most effective when embedded ininstructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Fact Fishy16 17. 8/5/2012Fact: Instructional games should be embedded ininstructional programs that includedebriefing and feedback. EngagementInstructional support to help learnersunderstandEducational the game increaseshow to useSimulationinstructional effectiveness of the gaming Gameexperience.PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 17 18. 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 18 19. 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 19 20. 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 20 21. 8/5/2012Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Dont focus on entertainment.3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning. 21 22. 8/5/2012 Level of InteractivityType ofType ofGame Play Low Medium High Knowledge(Customer Taught Development)Exploration/Simulation $25,000- $35,000- $50,000-Problem-Engine/Free Play Area$35,000$50,000$150,000 SolvingBranching story, On-Line $10,000- $15,000- $30,000- ConceptualBoard Games$15,000$30,000$50,000Knowledge/ RulesMatching, Trivia Games,$1,500-$3,000- $5,000- DeclarativeDrag and Drop Games$3,000 $5,000$20,000 Knowledge/Fact/Jargon 22 23. 8/5/2012Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification 23 24. 8/5/2012 24 25. 8/5/2012 25 26. 8/5/2012Some people think Gamification is only about points, badges and rewards.These are the least motivational and intrinsic elements of games and should not be the focus of the efforts oflearning designers. 26 27. 8/5/2012 Elements ofGames that Aid Learning Story Character Recognition Levels Challenges Chance Replayability Aesthetics Time Continual Feedback27 28. 8/5/2012 Elements ofGames that Aid Learning Story CharacterRecognition NOT Enough Time Levels Challenges Chance Replayability Aesthetics Time Continual Feedback 28 29. 8/5/2012Three Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Characters2. Story3. Challenges29 30. 8/5/2012Weve Always WantedCharacters 30 31. 8/5/2012The use of on-screen characters to present information to alearner interferes with the learners performance more thanjust having text on the screen.FactFishy 31 32. 8/5/2012 FISHY: On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A realistic character did not facilitate learning any better than a cartoon-like character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton 32 33. 8/5/2012Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality andadaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 35593565. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning and Instruction33 34. 8/5/2012When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, thetone and conversational style needs to be formal.Fact Fishy34 35. 8/5/2012 FISHY: When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, the tone and conversational style needs to be INFORMAL and conversational.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 195. www.karlkapp.com 35 36. 8/5/2012The use of two characters, one as a coach and one as an expertis better than just having one a character (mentor).FactFishy36 37. 8/5/2012Yes, two avatars are betterthan one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning andExpertInstruction 37 38. 8/5/2012http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/ 38 39. 8/5/2012http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/ 39 40. 8/5/2012 Recommendations Use characters/agents to model desired behavior. Use characters/agents to provide feedback andinstruction to learners. Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone. Use two characters, one for coaching and one forexpertise is better than just having one character trying todo both.40 41. 8/5/2012Story 41 42. 8/5/2012Learners tend to remember facts more accurately if theyencounter them in a bulleted list rather than in a story.Fact Fishy 42 43. 8/5/2012FISHY: Researchers have found that theYep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity formore accurately if they encounternarrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as moreconvincing when built into narrativetales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.43 44. 8/5/2012 Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Ten sion 4. Resolution5. Conclusion44 45. 8/5/2012NikePlus Stats for Karl 45 46. 8/5/2012 46 47. 8/5/2012Presenting learners with a challenging task is not a goodtechnique for generating learner engagement.FactFishy 47 48. 8/5/2012 FISHY: Provide achallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.48 49. 8/5/2012Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge49 50. 8/5/2012 Investigatory Training Course Objectives Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation Practice Interview Techniques Describe and Follow the Investigation Model50 51. 8/5/2012It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?51 52. 8/5/2012Challenge and Consolidation Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison52 53. 8/5/2012Recommendations Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. Start the learning process by providing a challenge tothe learner. Provide a progression from simple to more difficulttasks. Use stories that are related to the context of thedesired learning outcome.53 54. 8/5/2012 54 55. 8/5/2012 55 56. 8/5/2012 First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.56 57. 8/5/2012 Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.57 58. 8/5/2012 Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retentionfor declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are betterthen one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage andmotivate them.8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desiredlearning outcome.9) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.10) (What did you take away?...write in chat.)58 59. 8/5/2012Questions ?Twitter:@kkappkkapp@bloomu.edu59

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