Games, Interactivity, Gamification for Learning: Creating Engaged Learners

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  • 1. Session#: 210Title: Games, Interactivity andGamificaiton for Learning: Creating Engaged Learners Date: Monday, February 18 Time: 9:15-10:15 AMContact Information: Karl KappEmail: kkapp@bloomu.edu Twitter: @kkappSlides available on Slideshare.netRevision 1.01 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp

2. AgendaIn this session, we are going to cover the following topics:Definition of Gamification What is Game-based thinking?Avatars for Learning Weve always wanted to be an Avatar Learners interact with avatars Avatar experiences translate to real-lifeLearning Transfer Simulation/Games translate learning better than classroom Simulation/Game doesnt need to be enjoyed to be educationalFlow Sense of flow influenced by sense of presence Interactivity is important Matching skills to task helps flowGame Perspective First-person vs. Third-Person Perspective MattersPutting It All Together Inventory Observation Pro-Social Gaming? QuestionThink about games/simulations youve played and how they impact you.2 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 3. ObjectivesHere are the objectives for the presentation: What does research say about 3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations forlearning? Learn to add game-based elements to your toolkit Understand how learning can be transformed with gamificationby using experiencepoints, game-based storytelling and leader boards3 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 4. DefinitionGamification:Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems.4 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 5. Avatars for LearningAvatar ResearchSeveral studies have been conducted showing the effectiveness of avatars for instruction. An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.[4] Watching an avatar that looks like you performing an activity influences you to perform a similar or same activity in the future. Creating avatars and having a learner perform a task as an avatar influences a persons actual behavior outside of the virtual environment. In one study, users watched an avatar that looked like them exercising and losing weight in a virtual environment, the result was that those that watched the avatar of their self subsequently exercised more and ate healthier in the real world as compared to a control group. This as reported by Fox and Bailenson (2009).[5] In similar study conducted by Yee, Bailenson & Ducheneaut, (2009), had three control group.[6] One where participants were exposed to an avatar representing themselves running on a treadmill, the second with avatar running that did not represent the participant and the third group with avatar representing themselves loitering. Within 24 hours, after the experiment, participants who were exposed to the avatar running that represented themselves exercised significantly more than those in the other conditions. Watching an avatar that resembles yourself changing in some way impacts future decisions. A study by Ersner-Hershfield et al. (2008) found that when college-aged students observed their avatar ageing in a virtual mirror, they formed a psychological connection to their future self and decided to invest more money in a retirement account as opposed to a control group.[7] Behavioral changes occurring in a virtual environment can transfer to the physical environment. In a study by Yee and Bailenson (2007) comparing the heights of avatars, it was found that participants with taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants with shorter avatars; specifically, they were more willing to make unfair splits in negotiation tasks. In contrast, participants with shorter avatars were more willing to accept unfair offers than those who had taller avatars.[8] Then Yee et. al. (2009) found behavior changes originating within the virtual environment transferred to subsequent face-to-face interactions.[9] In the study, participants were placed in an immersive virtual environment and were given either shorter or taller avatars. They then5 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 6. interacted with a human confederate for about 15 min. In addition to causing a behavioral difference within the virtual environment, the authors found that participants given taller avatars negotiated more aggressively in the subsequent face-to-face interaction with the confederate than participants given shorter avatars.[10]6 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 7. Learning Transfer Trainees gain higher confidence in applying learning from a training session to their job when the training is simulation game based. The research evidence suggests the use of simulations to enhance the confidence trainees have in their ability to apply the skills learned in the training to their job. In a meta-analysis of more than 60 studies with 6,476 participants, it was found that trainees receiving instruction via a simulation game had 20% higher confidence they had learned the information taught in training and could perform the training-related tasks (self-efficacy) than trainees in a comparison group of more traditional methods. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx Simulations embedded in a program of instruction are better tools for learning than stand alone simulations. Trainees learn more from simulations games that are embedded in a program of instruction than when simulation games are the sole instructional method. When simulation games were used as a supplement to other instructional methods, the simulation game group had higher knowledge levels than the comparison group. However, when simulation games were used as standalone instruction, trainees in a comparison group learned more than trainees in the simulation game group. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx Simulation games dont have to be entertaining to be educational. In a meta-analysis of studies, the research indicated that trainees learned the same amount of information in simulation games whether the games were ranked high in entertainment value or low in entertainment value. There does not appear to be a correlation between the entertainment value of a simulation game and its educational merit. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based7 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 8. simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx Trainees learn more from simulations games that actively engage trainees in learning rather than passively conveying the instructional material. When the majority of the instruction in a simulation game was passive, the comparison group learned more than the simulation game group. However, when the majority of the instruction in the simulation game was active, the simulation game group learned more than the comparison group. These findings suggest that simulation games are more effective when they actively engage trainees in learning the course material. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx Trainees participating in simulation game learning experiences have higher declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and retention of training material than those trainees participating in more traditional learning experiences. Post-training declarative knowledge, post-training procedural knowledge and retention of the training material is higher for trainees participating in a simulation game experience than the comparison groups. In examining the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games related to comparison groups, it was found that declarative knowledge was 11% higher for trainees taught with simulation games than a comparison group; procedural knowledge was 14% higher and retention was 9% higher. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx8 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 9. FlowUndergraduate college students at a university in the Southeast region of the United States werechosen as participants, and data were collected in April 2009, entailing 42 usable surveys. Thisstudy demonstrated that flow experiences in 3D virtual worlds had a significant and positiveimpact on students attitudes toward e-learning. This study found that the quality of engaging andpleasant experiences is influenced by three factors: the skills available to tackle challengingtasks, the perception of interactivity in the virtual learning experience, and the degree of presencesensation perceived by students.Student Attitude Toward Virtual Learning in Second Life: A FlowTheory Approach. Yu-ChihHuang1 yhuang@clemson.edu Backman, Sheila J. Backman, Kenneth F. Source:Journal ofTeaching in Travel & Tourism; Oct-Dec2010, Vol. 10 Issue 4, p312-334, 23p, 5 Charts9 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 10. Game PerspectiveResearch has found that a person is more likely to adjust their self-concept to match a desiredbehavior if that behavior is imagined from a third-person, observers perspective rather than afirst-person, experiencers perspective. The research strongly suggests that the idea of picturingyourself performing a desired behavior may, in fact, be an effective strategy for translatinggood intentions into practical actions.In one study before the 2004 U.S. presidential election, researchers asked registered voters inOhio to picture themselves voting in the election from either a first-person perspective (lookingthrough their own eyes) or a third person perspective (observing themselves as if in a movielooking over their shoulder). [11]The individuals who pictured them self voting from a third-person perspective adopted a strongerpro-voting mind-set; they indicated they were more likely to vote. Not only did they think theywere more likely to vote. They were more likely to vote. Those people who pictured self votingin third person were significantly more likely to vote in the election than those who picturedthemselves voting in first-person.Other studies in autobiographical memory shows that the visual perspective people use to picturea past event affects their present emotions, self-judgments, and even behavior. Perspectivematters when visualizing activities and translating those visualizations into changes. [12]Additionally, the changes in behavior are even stronger when photographs are used to depictingthe desired behavior. It is believed by researchers in the field of autobiographical memory thatmanipulations of perspective in 3D virtual environments should work like manipulations inmental imagery, maybe even better since with the VIE you could more carefully control theimage whereas with mental imagery you are relying on people maintaining the perspective youinstruct on their own.[13]Translating this concept to games/simulations, the actions in a game/simulation are bestpresented from the third-person perspective. Often in these environments, the learner is lookingover his or her own shoulder. That perspective may lead to more behavior change than asking thelearners to witness their activities in first-person as is often in the case in a simulation or in arole-play that occurs within a traditional classroom environment. 10 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from The Gamification of Learning and Instruction by Karl M. Kapp 11. Putting It All TogetherThe question, does playing prosocial video games cause prosocial behavior and prosocialthoughts? To find out the answer the researchers conducted an interesting experiment placingthe subjects of the experiment in a position to assist others or not assist them after the subjectshad played a prosocial video game. The subjects who played a prosocial video game were morewilling to help than the other experimental groups.An experiment was designed to examine the impact of prosocial, aggressive and neutral gameson spont...

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