Craftsman 101

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This is a quick presentation I put together briefing builders in Second Life on the history and key characteristics of the Craftsman style. This presentation will be attended by builders who will compete in a competition to build a craftsman home in Second Life as a part of the Frank Lloyd Wright Museum hosted events in November 2009

Text of Craftsman 101

  • 1. Craftsman Style 101 A Builders Guide to Recreating Craftsman in SL

2. Your Presenter: Troy Vogel

  • Content creator, architect since 2004
  • Architect of the following projects:
    • Odaesan House
    • Costa Del Mar House
    • Texas State University Virtual Campus:Bobcat Village
    • United Church of Christ of Koinonia
    • Mission Home Store Island
  • Furniture builder for theMission Home Store

3. Arts & Crafts in the UK

  • Arts & Crafts movement began in 1860s England with the ideas of the philosopher John Ruskin and designer and poet William Morris.
  • Rebellion against Victorian industrialized production, poor working conditions and lack of respect for workmanship.
  • Classical and then current industrial designs were both disregarding function and needs of residents of the spaces. This required a return to a more human centric approach to design & architecture.
  • Advocated a return to the Gothic architectural style
  • Good products, and fine craftsmanship should be available to all especially the working class. This will help them regain the dignity they lost.
  • Machines should not impose design rules, design rules should impose how machines are used wisely: use machines for drudgery work and blend in handcrafting for fine work & finishing.

4. Craftsman Style in the US

  • One school believes that Greene and Greene are the pioneers of Craftsman in the US while another believes that A&C came over to the US around 1890-1920s titled as Craftsman by Gustav Stickley.
  • The movement later was also referred to as the Mission after an article published in a newspaper about Gustav where he referred to one of his designs in a Spanish Mission in Southern California.
  • Spanish Mission at the time meant Spanish Colonial and the juxtaposition of the Mission name used for Craftsman created much confusion then and even now amongst collectors.
  • Hand crafted furniture, vases, and goods but everything must have a function. NO Victorian clutter in the house!
  • Quarter sawn oak and best natural materials used.
  • Embellishments and decorations are restrained and/or functional (contrast to Victorian).
  • Elaborate wood joinery: mortise & tenons.

5. Master Architects of theCraftsman Style

  • Gustav Stickley
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Greene & Greene
  • Charles Rennie Mackintosh

6. Gustav Stickley (1858-1942)

  • Stickley brought A&C style to the US and named it Craftsman to differentiate from the UK A&C.
  • Later it was also called Mission Style: furniture must fill its mission of usefulness as we as it possibly can
  • Stickley published the Craftsman magazine that had detailed drawings meant to inspire people to build their own pieces.
  • Stickley designed at least 241 homes and published over 221 plans between 1901 and 1916.
  • There are two Stickley companies today both descendents of the original Gustav Stickley.

7. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)

  • Took the A&C and Craftsman styles to the next level by transforming them into the Prairie style.
  • Inherited the basic principles of the A&C and Craftsman movements and took them to extremes while making them his own.
  • Houses adorned with Asian, Mayan influenced touches.
  • Experimented with building materials.

8. Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957)Henry Mathers Greene(1870-1954)

  • Hailed by the American Institute of Architects as formulators of a new and native architecture.
  • Greene & Greene designed houses and furnishings a century ago that established a new paradigm for the art of architecture in the United States.
  • Characteristics of their work:
    • Drawing on the skills of outstanding craftsmen,
    • High art aesthetics,
    • Beautiful and functional spaces.

9. Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)

  • Leader of the Glasgow style that evolved from A&C roots.
  • His influences were Industrial Modernism and Asian.
  • However his work was far from most of the modernists of his era and reflected a level of ornament that was more reminiscent of Art Nouveau.
  • Margaret Macdonald, his wifes, contribution to interior decors of his building should not be overlooked.
  • The principles that guided A&C and Craftsman also guided CRM:
    • Importance for family space
    • Local materials & labor
    • Quality furnishings
    • Windows & light very important
    • Art should be in everything, it should surround people
    • Furnishings should be sparse and functional, homes should be uncluttered.

10. Characteristics of Craftsman House I

  • Craftsman Home has refinement of design and quality of construction and finish.
  • It is often site related and placed to advantage using the site.
  • The house is built with materials found on the site, and/or natural materials native to the region.
  • The house designs rely on exposed structural elements for decorative details. The variety of natural materials provide textures for light to play on .
  • Voids, in the form of recessed porches and entrance ways, and terraces and pergolas, create visual interest.

11. Characteristics of Craftsman House II

  • Interiors emphasize form and function. Space is conservatively and creatively used for living, with design elements utilizing wood and built-in spaces such as inglenooks, benches and cabinets.
  • Ceilings are lower than Victorian though not as low as Prairie style that followed.
  • Light fixtures and hardware relate as design elements.
  • Asian influence is felt in many of the details such as the pitch of the roofline being quite low.

12. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior PORCH

  • A wide, unenclosed front porch with overhanging eaves spanning the full or partial width of the home is a recognizable feature of the craftsman style. Porches are often framed by substantial columns, often square or tapered and extending all the way to the ground.

13. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FRONT DOORS

  • Glazing Fitting glass into windows and doors.
  • Paneled door A door with one or more recessed panels.
  • Batten door A door constructed by nailing boards together in various ways.

14. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior ROOFLINE

  • Craftsman homes have lower pitch gables.Frequently the brackets supporting the roof are visible. Decorative Beams & rafters real or false are exposed. Multiple roof planes were common. Tile and slate as well as shingles were favored.

15. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior CHIMNEYS

  • Stone exterior chimneys were present in almost every single Craftsman home. Some of the earlier versions used mix of materials such as: stone at bottom becoming brick toward the top.

16. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FOUNDATION

  • Sloping Foundation

17. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior WINDOWS

  • Windows of craftsman style homes are often grouped together in horizontal sets.Windows typically have noticeable frames and may be double-hung or fixed, with some homes adorned with a stained glass window.

18. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior SIDING

  • Common siding materials used are horizontal wood boards and wood shingles or shakes. Ground floor and upper floors often had different materials: clapboard/shingle over stone. Stucco was also commonly used.

19. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior LANDSCAPING

  • A Craftsman home should be surrounded by planters, plant beds, and carefully selected location appropriate plants native to the area. The house should appear in harmony with its surroundings.

20. Craftsman Interiors & Furniture 21. Victorian Vs. Craftsman Interiors

  • Victorian
  • Craftsman Interiors

22. Mission Furniture Characteristics

  • Carpentry
    • Quartersawn Solid Oak
    • Quadralinear Posts
    • Joinery:
      • Mortise & Tenons
      • Tongue & Groove Joints
      • Blind Dovetailed Crossrails
    • Book Matched Door Panels
  • Use of Art Glass
  • Ceramics

23. Craftsman Furniture Details