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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

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Page 1: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

THE SKELETAL SYSTEMCHAPTERS 6 & 7

Page 2: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

The Skeletal System

• Parts of the skeletal system– Bones (skeleton)– Joints– Cartilages– Ligaments

• Divided into two divisions– Axial skeleton– Appendicular skeleton

Page 3: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bones of the Human Body

• The adult skeleton has 206 bones

• Two basic types of bone tissue– Compact bone

• Homogeneous

– Spongy bone• Small needle-like

pieces of bone• Many open spaces

Figure 5.2b

Page 4: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Acro- -clast Lambd- -physis

Arthro- Chondr- Lumb- Semi-

Cap- Costa- Meta- Sterno-

-blast Crist- Os-, Osteo- Sym-

Cervic- Ethm- Peri- Synovi(o)-

Page 5: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Functions of Bones

• Support of the body

• Protection of soft organs

• Movement due to attached skeletal muscles

• Storage of minerals

• Blood cell formation

• Storage of fats

Page 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape – pg 70 SG

Figure 5.1

Page 7: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Classification of Bones

• Long bones– Typically longer than wide– Have a shaft with heads at both ends– Contain mostly compact bone

• Examples: Femur, Humerus

Page 8: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Classification of Bones

• Short bones– Generally cube-shape– Contain mostly spongy bone

• Examples: Carpals, tarsals

Page 9: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Classification of Bones

• Flat bones– Thin and flattened– Usually curved– Thin layers of compact

bone around a layer of spongy bone

• Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

Page 10: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Classification of Bones

• Irregular bones– Irregular shape– Do not fit into other

bone classification categories

• Example: Vertebrae and hip

Page 11: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Gross Anatomy of the typical long bone – pg 72 of SG

• Epiphysis• Diaphysis• Articular cartilage• Epiphyseal line• Spongy bone• Compact bone• Medullary cavity • Periosteum

Page 12: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Components

• Mature bone cells are Osteocytes

Page 13: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Microscopic Structure of Bone

• Haversian canal• Lacunae• Osteocytes• Lamellae• Canaliculi• Volkmann’s

canals• Matrix • Pg. text, 176• #A5 SG

Page 14: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 15: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 16: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 17: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bone Markings

• Surface features of bones

• Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments

• Passages for nerves and blood vessels

• Categories of bone markings– Projections and processes – grow out from

the bone surface– Depressions or cavities – indentations

Page 18: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bone MarkingsProjections/sites of muscle and ligament attachment

• Tuberosity • Crest• Trochanter• Line• Tubercle• Epicondyle• Spine• Process

Projections/sites that form joints

• Head• Facet• Condyle• Ramus

Page 19: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

More Bone Markings

Cavities

• Sinus

Depressions/Openings

allow blood vessels and nerves to pass

• Meatus• Fossa• Groove• Fissure• Foramen

Page 20: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Table 7.2 pg 198

• Head – rounded articular process at the proximal end of a bone

• Condyle – rounded articular process at the distal end of a bone

• Epicondyle – a small raised area above a condyle for joint capsule attachment

• Foramen – a short passageway through bone for vessels and nerves

• Meatus – a long canal like passageway

Page 21: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Fossa – a depression in bone

•  Sinus – a cavity in bone lined by a mucous membrane

• Trochanter – very large projection•  Tuberosity – a large rounded projection for

muscle attachment• Tubercle – a small rounded projection• Fissure – a slit like opening through bone• Facet – smooth flat articular surface

Page 22: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Crest – prominent ridge or elongated projection

• Sulcus – furrow along a bone surface where a blood vessel, nerve or tendon is located

• Spine – sharp, slender often pointed projection

• Using an Anatomy Atlas, see if you can identify bone surface markings on the skeleton and unarticulated bones at the front of the room

Page 23: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

Page 24: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Pg 73 SG

• Color – Axial Skeleton– Appendicular

Skeleton

– With a key

Page 25: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 26: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• The Axial Skeleton

• Forms the longitudinal part of the body

• Divided into three parts– Skull– Vertebral column– Bony thorax

Page 27: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

The Skull

• Text pg. 199 – 204

• Color each of the bones of the skull

Page 28: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• The Skull

• Two sets of bones– Cranium– Facial bones

• Bones are joined by sutures

• Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

Page 29: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 30: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 31: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 32: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 33: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Paranasal sinuses • Text pg. 211• Paranasal sinuses

Page 34: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 35: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

The Vertebral Column

• Text pg. 213

Page 36: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

Page 37: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Spinal abnormalities

– Lordosis– Kyphosis– Scoliosis

Text pg. 226

Page 38: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Function determines Stucture

Page 39: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Structure of a Typical Vertebrae

Figure 5.16

Page 40: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Regional Characteristics

Figure 5.17a–b

Page 41: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Regional Characteristics

Figure 5.17c–d

Page 42: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

The Vertebrae

• Text pg. 217

Page 43: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• text pg.219

Page 44: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Bony thorax– Rib cage

• Text pg. 223

Page 45: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Forms a

cage to protect

organs

Page 46: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Made up of 3 parts– Sternum– Ribs– Thoracic vertebrae

Page 47: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two
Page 48: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

The Appendicular Skeleton

• Pectoral girdle • Text pg. 232

Page 49: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Clavicle and Scapula

Page 50: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle

• Composed of two bones– Clavicle – collarbone– Scapula – shoulder blade

• These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

Page 51: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

Figure 5.20c–d

Page 52: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Upper limb– Text

• Pg235

Page 53: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Wrist and hand– Text pg 239

Page 54: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

• Hip bones• Composed of three pair of fused bones

– Ilium– Ischium– Pubic bone

• The total weight of the upper body rests on thepelvis

• Protects several organs– Reproductive organs– Urinary bladder– Part of the large intestine

Page 55: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Pelvic girdle– Text pg

240

Page 56: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Gender Differences

Figure 5.23c

Page 57: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Lower limb– Text pg

245

Page 58: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Bones of the feet– Text pg 250, 251

Page 59: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Fractures text pg. 185

Page 60: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Bone Fractures

• A break in a bone• Types of bone fractures

– Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin

– Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin

• Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization– Realignment of the bone

Page 61: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Common Types of Fractures

Page 62: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Compound fracture

Page 63: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Repair of Bone Fractures

• Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed

• Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus

• Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus

• Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

Page 64: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture

Figure 5.5

Page 65: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Diseases of the Skeletal System

Page 66: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Changes at around 60 years of age

• Bones become porous

• Haversian canals and canaliculi become plugged

• Osteons– Incompletely

mineralized– Hypermineralized– Hypomineralized

• Number of empty lacunae increases

• Blood vessels inside bones are sclerotic

• Microinfractions in areas of strain or over-use

• Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts no longer in balance

Page 67: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

Diseases/Disorders

• Osteoporosis

• Osteogenic sarcoma

• Osteomalacia

• Osteomyelitis

• Osteopenia

Page 68: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Osteoporosis– Decreased bone mass– Increased fractures– Loss of Estrogen

decreased Osteoblasts

Page 69: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Osteomalacia– “soft” bones due to

inadequate calcification

• Osteogenic sarcoma– Malignant bone tumor

Page 70: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7. The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system –Bones (skeleton) –Joints –Cartilages –Ligaments Divided into two

• Osteopenia– Decreased bone mass

• Osteomyelitis – Bone infection