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pyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Cartilages Contain no blood vessels or nerves Dense connective tissue girdle of perichondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage

Skeletal Cartilages

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Skeletal Cartilages. Contain no blood vessels or nerves Dense connective tissue girdle of perichondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage. Epiglottis. Larynx. Thyroid cartilage. Cartilage in external ear. Cartilages in nose. Trachea. Cricoid cartilage. Lung. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal Cartilages

• Contain no blood vessels or nerves

• Dense connective tissue girdle of perichondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage

Page 2: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.1

Axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

Hyaline cartilages

Elastic cartilages

Fibrocartilages

Cartilages

Bones of skeleton

EpiglottisLarynx

TracheaCricoidcartilage Lung

Respiratory tube cartilagesin neck and thorax

ThyroidcartilageCartilage in

external earCartilages innose

ArticularCartilageof a jointCostalcartilage

Cartilage inIntervertebraldisc

Pubicsymphysis

Articular cartilageof a joint

Meniscus (padlikecartilage inknee joint)

Page 3: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.1

Cartilage inexternal ear

Cartilages innose

ArticularCartilageof a jointCostalcartilage

Cartilage inIntervertebraldisc

Pubicsymphysis

Articular cartilageof a joint

Meniscus (padlikecartilage inknee joint)

Page 4: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.2

Page 5: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Functions of Bones

• Support

• Protection

• Movement

• Storage• Minerals (calcium and phosphorus)

• Blood cell formation in marrow cavities

Page 6: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3a-b

Proximalepiphysis

(b)

(a)

Epiphysealline

Articularcartilage

Periosteum

Spongy bone

Compact boneMedullarycavity (linedby endosteum)

Compact bone

Diaphysis

Distalepiphysis

Page 7: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Membranes of Bone

• Periosteum• Outer fibrous layer

• Inner osteogenic layer

• Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells)

• Osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells)

• Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter via nutrient foramina

• Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers

Page 8: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3c

(c)

Yellowbone marrow

Endosteum

Compact bone

Periosteum

Perforating(Sharpey’s) fibers

Nutrientarteries

Page 9: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.5

Compactbone

Trabeculae

Spongy bone(diploë)

Page 10: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.6

Structuresin thecentralcanal

Artery withcapillariesVeinNerve fiber

Lamellae

Collagenfibersrun indifferentdirections

Twistingforce

Page 11: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.7a-c

Endosteum lining bony canalsand covering trabeculae

Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal

Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibersPeriosteal blood vesselPeriosteum

Lacuna (withosteocyte)

(a)

(b) (c)Lacunae

Lamellae

NerveVeinArteryCanaliculiOsteocytein a lacuna

Circumferentiallamellae

Osteon(Haversian system)

Central(Haversian) canal

Centralcanal

Interstitial lamellae

Lamellae

Compactbone

Spongy bone

Page 12: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3b

(b)

Lacunae

Lamellae

Nerve

Vein

Artery

Canaliculus

Osteocytein a lacuna

Centralcanal

Page 13: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Composition of Bone

• Organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts• Collagen fibers 33%

• Provide tensile strength and flexibility

• Inorganic hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)• 65% of bone by mass

• Mainly calcium phosphate crystals

• Responsible for hardness

Page 14: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Page 15: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Development

• Osteogenesis (ossification)—bone tissue formation

• Stages• Bone formation—begins in the 2nd month of

development

• Postnatal bone growth—until early adulthood

• Bone remodeling and repair—lifelong

Page 16: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.10

Calcified cartilagespicule

Osseous tissue(bone) coveringcartilage spicules

Resting zone

Osteoblast depositingbone matrix

Proliferation zoneCartilage cells undergo mitosis.

Hypertrophic zoneOlder cartilage cells enlarge.

Ossification zoneNew bone formation is occurring.

Calcification zoneMatrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating.

1

2

3

4

Page 17: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth

• Growth hormone stimulates epiphyseal plate activity

• Thyroid hormone modulates activity of growth hormone

• Testosterone and estrogens (at puberty)• Promote adolescent growth spurts

• End growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure

Page 18: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Deposit

• Occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed

• Requires a diet rich in protein; vitamins C, D, and A; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; and manganese

Page 19: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Control of Remodeling

•What controls continual remodeling of bone?• Hormonal mechanisms that maintain calcium

homeostasis in the blood

• Mechanical and gravitational forces

Page 20: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hormonal Control of Blood Ca2+

• Calcium is necessary for• Transmission of nerve impulses

• Muscle contraction

• Blood coagulation

• Cell division

Page 21: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.12

Osteoclastsdegrade bonematrix and release Ca2+

into blood.

Parathyroidglands

Thyroidgland

Parathyroidglands releaseparathyroidhormone (PTH).

StimulusFalling bloodCa2+ levels

PTH

Calcium homeostasis of blood: 9–11 mg/100 mlBALANCEBALANCE

Page 22: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6.2

Page 23: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6.2

Page 24: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6.2

Page 25: Skeletal Cartilages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Repair

Blood fromruptured bloodvessels forms aclot surroundingthe ends of thebroken bone

1 Healing beginswhen a callus ofcartilage replacesthe clot

2 Bone gradually replaces thecartilage in thecallus

3 When maturebone completelyreplaces the callusand the originalshape of the bonehas been mostlyrestored, thefracture is healed

4

largebloodclotcompact bonespongy bone