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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes: Bones Cartilages Joints Ligaments Other connective tissues Copyright

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

The Skeletal System

The skeletal system includes: Bones Cartilages Joints Ligaments Other connective tissues

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Skeletal System

Functions of the Skeletal System Support against gravity Storage

Calcium, phosphorous Fat

Blood cell production Protection of soft internal organs Leverage for muscle action

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Structure of Bone

Bone (Osseous Tissue) Specialized cells

2% of bone weight Strong flexible matrix

Calcium phosphate crystals Two-thirds of bone weight

Collagen fibers

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The Structure of Bone

Macroscopic Features of Bone General shapes of bones

Long bones (e.g., humerus)

Short bones (e.g., carpal bones)

Flat bones (e.g., parietal bone)

Irregular bones (e.g., vertebra)

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Structure of Bone Shapes of Bones

Figure 6-1

The Structure of Bone

Features in a Long Bone Diaphysis (shaft)

Compact (dense) bone Marrow cavity

Epiphyses (ends) Spongy (cancellous) bone

Articular cartilage Periosteum (covering) Endosteum (lining)

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The Structure of Bone

The Structure of a Long Bone

Figure 6-2

The Structure of Bone

Microscopic Features of Bone Periosteum

Outer fibrous layer Inner cellular layer

Osteocytes Within lacunae (holes) in matrix Between lamellae of matrix Branches within canaliculi

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Structure of Bone Microscopic Features of Bone

Osteon—Basic functional unit of compact bone; columnar in shape Strong in long axis of bone Concentric layers of osteocytes Concentric layers of matrix (lamellae) Central (Haversian) canal

Axial tunnel for blood vessels Perforating canal

Radial tunnel for blood vessels

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The Structure of Bone Structure of a Typical Bone

Figure 6-3(a)

The Structure of Bone

Structure of a Typical Bone

Figure 6-3(b)

The Structure of Bone

Microscopic Features of Spongy Bone No osteons Lamellae as trabeculae

Arches, rods, plates of bone Branching network of bony tissue Strong in many directions Red marrow (blood forming) spaces

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The Structure of Bone Cells in Bone

Osteocytes Mature bone cells between lamellae

Osteoclasts Source of acid, enzymes for osteolysis Calcium homeostasis

Osteoblasts Responsible for osteogenesis (new bone) Source of collagen, calcium salts

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Bone Formation and Growth

Intramembranous Ossification Ossification—Process of converting other

tissues to bone Forms flat bones of skull, mandible, clavicle Stem cells differentiate to osteoblasts Produces spongy bone, then compact bone

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Bone Formation and Growth

Bone Formation in 16-Week-Old Fetus

Figure 6-4

Bone Formation and Growth

Endochondral Ossification Most bones formed this way Cartilage model replaced by bone Replacement begins in middle

(diaphysis) Replacement follows in ends

(epiphyses)

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Figure 6-52 of 6

Enlargingchondrocytes within

calcifying matrix

Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calicifies.

Cartilagemodel

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Figure 6-53 of 6

Enlargingchondrocytes within

calcifying matrix

Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calicifies.

Newly derived osteoblasts cover the shaft of the cartilage in a thin layer of bone.

Cartilagemodel

Boneformation

Epiphysis

Diaphysis

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Figure 6-54 of 6

Enlargingchondrocytes within

calcifying matrix

Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calicifies.

Newly derived osteoblasts cover the shaft of the cartilage in a thin layer of bone.

Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage. New osteoblasts form a primary ossification center.

Cartilagemodel

Boneformation

Epiphysis

Diaphysis Marrowcavity

Primaryossificationcenter

Bloodvessel

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Figure 6-55 of 6

Enlargingchondrocytes within

calcifying matrix

Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calicifies.

Newly derived osteoblasts cover the shaft of the cartilage in a thin layer of bone.

Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage. New osteoblasts form a primary ossification center.

The bone of the shaft thickens, and the cartilage near each epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone.

Cartilagemodel

Boneformation

Epiphysis

Diaphysis Marrowcavity

Primaryossificationcenter

Bloodvessel

Marrowcavity

Bloodvessel

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Figure 6-56 of 6

Enlargingchondrocytes within

calcifying matrix

Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calicifies.

Newly derived osteoblasts cover the shaft of the cartilage in a thin layer of bone.

Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage. New osteoblasts form a primary ossification center.

The bone of the shaft thickens, and the cartilage near each epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone.

Blood vessels invade the epiphyses and osteo-blasts form secondary centers of ossification.

Cartilagemodel

Boneformation

Epiphysis

Diaphysis Marrowcavity

Primaryossificationcenter

Bloodvessel

Marrowcavity

Bloodvessel

Secondaryossificationcenter

Epiphysealcartilage

Articularcartilage

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Bone Formation and Growth

Appositional Bone Growth

Figure 6-6

Bone Formation and Growth Requirements for Normal Bone Growth

Minerals Calcium, phosphate

Vitamins Vitamin D3

Vitamin C Vitamin A

Hormones Growth Hormone Sex hormones, thyroid hormone, others

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Bone Remodeling/Homeostasis

Role of Remodeling in Support Remodeling—Continuous

breakdown and reforming of bone tissue

Shapes reflect applied loads Mineral turnover enables adapting

to new stresses

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Bone Remodeling/Homeostasis

What you don’t use, you lose.

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Bone Remodeling/Homeostasis

Homeostasis and Mineral Storage Bones store calcium

Contain 99% of body calcium up to two kg calcium

Hormones control storage/release PTH, calcitriol release bone calcium Calcitonin stores bone calcium

Blood levels kept constant

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Bone Remodeling/Homeostasis

Injury and Repair Fracture—A crack or break in a bone Steps in fracture repair

Fracture hematoma Mitoses in periosteum, endosteum

Internal callus External callus

Bone remodeling

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Figure 6-71 of 5

Bonefragments

Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.

Fracturehematoma

Deadbone

NewbonePeriosteum

Spongy boneof internal

callus

Cartilageof external

callus

An internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.

The cartilage of the external callus has been replaced by bone, and struts of spongy bone now unite the broken ends. Fragments of dead bone and the areas of bone closest to the break have been removed and replaced.

A swelling initially marks the location of the fracture. Over time, this region will be remodeled, and little evidence of the fracture will remain.

Internalcallus

Externalcallus

Externalcallus

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Figure 6-72 of 5

Bonefragments

Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.

Fracturehematoma

Deadbone

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Figure 6-73 of 5

Bonefragments

Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.

Fracturehematoma

Deadbone

NewbonePeriosteum

Spongy boneof internal

callus

Cartilageof external

callus

An internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 6-74 of 5

Bonefragments

Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.

Fracturehematoma

Deadbone

NewbonePeriosteum

Spongy boneof internal

callus

Cartilageof external

callus

An internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.

The cartilage of the external callus has been replaced by bone, and struts of spongy bone now unite the broken ends. Fragments of dead bone and the areas of bone closest to the break have been removed and replaced.

Internalcallus

Externalcallus

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Figure 6-75 of 5

Steps in the Repair of a FracturePLAYPLAY

Bonefragments

Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.

Fracturehematoma

Deadbone

NewbonePeriosteum

Spongy boneof internal

callus

Cartilageof external

callus

An internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.

The cartilage of the external callus has been replaced by bone, and struts of spongy bone now unite the broken ends. Fragments of dead bone and the areas of bone closest to the break have been removed and replaced.

A swelling initially marks the location of the fracture. Over time, this region will be remodeled, and little evidence of the fracture will remain.

Internalcallus

Externalcallus

Externalcallus

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Aging and the Skeletal System

Osteopenia—Less than normal ossification (mineral content) in bone Osteopenia starts before age 40

Women lose 8% per decade Men lose 3% per decade

Spongy bone most affected Epiphyses Vertebrae Jaws

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An Overview of the Skeleton Surface Features of Bones

Table 6-1 (2 of 2)

An Overview of the Skeleton

Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton

Skull Thoracic cage and sternum Vertebral column

Appendicular skeleton Upper, lower limbs Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle

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An Overview of the Skeleton

The Skeleton

Figure 6-8(a)

An Overview of the Skeleton

The Skeleton

Figure 6-8(b)

An Overview of the Skeleton

The Axial and Appendicular Divisions of the Skeleton.

Figure 6-9

The Axial Division: The Skull

Bones of the Cranium Frontal bone

Forehead, superior surface of orbits Parietal bones

Sides, roof Occipital bone

Foramen magnum Temporal bones

Sides, base

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The Axial Division: The Skull

Bones of the Cranium (continued) Sphenoid bone

Bridge between cranial and facial bones

Ethmoid bone Cribriform plate Nasal septum

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The Axial Division: The Skull The Adult Skull (Part I)

Figure 6-10

The Axial Division: The Skull

Bones of the Face Maxillary bones Zygomatic bones

Zygomatic arch (with temporal bones)

Mandible

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The Axial Division: The Skull

Bones of the Face (continued) Palatine bones The Vomer Nasal bones Lacrimal bones Inferior nasal conchae Nasal complex

Nasal septum

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The Axial Division: The Skull

Bones of the Face (continued) Paranasal sinuses

Frontal Sphenoidal Ethmoidal Palatine Maxillary

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The Axial Division: The Skull

The Adult Skull (Part II)

Figure 6-11(a)

The Axial Division: The Skull The Adult Skull (Part II)

Figure 6-11(b)

The Axial Division: The Skull

Sectional Anatomy of the Skull

Figure 6-12(a)

The Axial Division: The Skull

Sectional Anatomy of the Skull

Figure 6-12(b)

The Axial Division: The SkullSectional Anatomy of the Skull

Figure 6-12(c)

The Axial Division: The Skull The Paranasal Sinuses

Figure 6-13

Axial Division: The Skull The Skull of a Newborn

Figure 6-15(a)

Axial Division: The SkullThe Skull of a Newborn

Figure 6-15(b)

Cleft Lip

Unilateral incomplete

Unilateral complete

Bilateral Complete

Cleft Lip

Prevalence of cleft lip Native Americans: 3.74/1000 Japanese: 0.82/1000 to 3.36/1000 Chinese: 1.45/1000 to 4.04/1000 Caucasians: 1.43/1000 to 1.86/1000 Latin Americans: 1.04/1000 Africans: 0.18/1000 to 1.67/1000

Cleft Palate

Incomplete cleft palate

Complete unilateral lip & palate cleft

Complete bilateral lip & palate cleft

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Vertebral Column (Spine) 26 Bones

7 Cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7)

12 Thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12)

5 Lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) Sacrum Coccyx (tailbone)

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Spinal Curvature Alignment of body weight Primary curves

Thoracic Sacral

Secondary curves Cervical Lumbar

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Vertebral Column

Figure 6-16

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Vertebral Anatomy Body Arch

Transverse, spinous processes Pedicle, lamina Vertebral foramen

Vertebral canal

Articular processes Articular facets

Intervertebral discs

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Regional Differences in Vertebrae Cervical

Oval body Transverse foramina

Thoracic Heart-shaped body

Lumbar Massive (heaviest loading) Blade-like transverse processes

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic,

and Lumbar Regions

Figure 6-17(a)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic,

and Lumbar Regions

Figure 6-17(b)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic,

and Lumbar Regions

Figure 6-17(c)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Atlas and Axis

Figure 6-18

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Functions of Sacrum Protects pelvic organs Base articulates with lumbar

vertebra Apex articulates with coccyx

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Sacrum and Coccyx

Figure 6-19(a)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Sacrum and Coccyx

Figure 6-19(b)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

Components of Thoracic Cage Thoracic vertebrae Ribs

Seven pairs of true ribs Cartilaginous joint with sternum

Five pairs of false ribs Sternum

Manubrium, body, xiphoid process

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Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Thoracic Cage

Figure 6-20(a)

Vertebral Column/Thoracic Cage

The Thoracic Cage

Figure 6-20(b)

Appendicular Division

Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) Components

Scapulae (“shoulder blade”) Coracoid process Acromium Scapular spine

Clavicles (“collar bone”) Functions

Shoulder, arm movement Articulation for arm

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Appendicular Division

The Clavicle

Figure 6-21

Appendicular Division The Scapula

Figure 6-22

Tuberosity Large, roughened elevation on a bony surface

Condyle Rounded articular projection on the surface of a bone

Trochlea A pulley

Fossa Shallow depression in surface of bone

Foramen Opening or passage through a bone

Sinus

Appendicular Division

Upper Limb Humerus

Head articulates with scapula Muscles attach to

Greater, lesser tubercles Deltoid tuberosity Medial, lateral epicondyles

Distal condyle articulates with forearm

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Appendicular Division

Upper Limb Anatomy Distal articulation of humerus

Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Trochlea

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Appendicular Division

The Humerus

Figure 6-23

Appendicular Division

Bones of the Forearm Radius

Lateral (thumb side) Head articulates with humerus Radial tuberosity attaches biceps brachii Participates in wrist joint

Ulna Trochlear notch articulates with humerus Olecranon forms point of elbow

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Appendicular Division

The Radius and Ulna

Figure 6-24

Appendicular Division

Bones of the Wrist and Hand Two rows of carpal bones

Proximal articulation with radius Distal articulation with metacarpal bones

Proximal phalanges (finger bones) articulate with metacarpals Three phalanges/finger Two phalanges/thumb (pollex)

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Appendicular Division

Bones of the Wrist and Hand

Figure 6-25

Appendicular Division

The Pelvic Girdle Formed by two hipbones

hipbones formed by fusion of: Ilium Ischium Pubis

Pubic symphysis limit movement Pelvis formed by coxae, sacrum,

coccyx

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Appendicular Division The Pelvis

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6-26(a)

Appendicular Division

The Pelvis

Figure 6-26(b)

Appendicular Division

The Pelvis

Figure 6-26(c)

Appendicular Division Differences in the Anatomy of the Pelvis

in Males and Females

Figure 6-27

Appendicular Division

Bones of the Lower Limb Femur (thighbone) Patella (kneecap) Tibia (shinbone) Fibula Ankle bones Foot bones

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Appendicular Division

The Femur

Figure 6-28

Appendicular Division

Bones of the Lower Limb Features of the tibia

Tibial tuberosity Patellar tendon attachment

Anterior crest Medial malleolus

Features of the fibula Articulation of head with tibia Lateral malleolus

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Appendicular Division

The Right Tibia and Fibula

Figure 6-29

Appendicular Division

The Bones of the Ankle and Foot Ankle

Seven tarsal bones Talus

Joint with tibia, fibula

Foot Calcaneus (heel bone)

Major load-bearing bone Metatarsal bones Five phalanges (toes)

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Appendicular Division

The Bones of the Ankle and Foot

Figure 6-30(a)

Appendicular Division

The Bones of the Ankle and Foot

Figure 6-30(b)

Articulations

Classification of Joints (Articulations) Joint—Where two bones interact Three functional classes of joint

Synarthroses Immovable

Amphiarthroses Slightly movable

Diarthroses Freely movable

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Articulations Examples of Joints

Synarthroses Suture Gomphosis Synchondrosis

Amphiarthroses Syndesmosis Symphysis

Diarthroses Synovial joints

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Articulations

Synovial Joints (Diarthroses) Epiphyses covered by articular cartilage Lubricated by synovial fluid Enclosed within joint capsule Other synovial structures include:

Menisci Bursae Fat pads Ligaments

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Articulations The Structure of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-31(a)

Articulations

The Structure of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-31(b)

Articulations

Synovial Joints: Movements Flexion Extension Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Circumduction Rotation

Supination Pronation

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Articulations

Angular Movements

Figure 6-32(a)

Articulations

Angular Movements

Figure 6-32(b)

Articulations Angular Movements

Figure 6-32(c)

Articulations

Angular Movements

Figure 6-32(d)

Articulations

Rotational Movements

Figure 6-33(a)

Articulations

Rotational Movements

Figure 6-33(b)

Articulations

Special Movements Foot and ankle

Inversion, eversion Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion

Hand Opposition of thumb, palm

Head Protraction, retraction Depression, elevation (jaw)

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Articulations Special Movements

Figure 6-34

Articulations

Structural Classification of Synovial Joints Gliding (e.g., vertebra–vertebra) Hinge (e.g., knee) Pivot (e.g., atlas–axis) Ellipsoidal (e.g., distal radius) Saddle (e.g., thumb) Ball-and-Socket (e.g., hip)

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Articulations Structural Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-35(a)

Articulations Structural Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-35(b)

Articulations

Structural Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-35(c)

Articulations

Figure 6-35(d)

Articulations

Structural Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-35(e)

Articulations

Structural Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 6-35(f)

Articulations

Greater mobility = weaker joint

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Articulations

Intervertebral Articulations Two kinds join adjacent vertebrae

Gliding joints Between superior and inferior articular

processes Permit small movements

Symphyseal joints Intervertebral discs composed of

fibrocartilage Cushion and connect

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Articulations

The Shoulder Joint Ball-and-socket design frees movement Joint dislocates easily Bursae reduce friction

Bursitis restricts motion, causes pain

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Articulations

The Shoulder Joint

Figure 6-37

Articulations

The Elbow Joint Two articulations

Humerus–radius Humerus–ulna

Interlocking hinge design Limited movement Flexion and extension only Strong ligaments

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Articulations The Elbow Joint

Figure 6-38

Articulations

The Hip Joint Extremely strong, stable joint

Many strong ligaments Tough joint capsule Bulky muscles

Versatile movements Flexion, extension, adduction,

abduction, circumduction, rotation

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Articulations

The Hip Joint

Figure 6-39

Articulations

The Knee Joint Complex hinge joint

Three separate articulations Femur-tibia (between condyles—lateral

and medial) Femur-patella

Fibrocartilage pads Ligaments

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Articulations The Knee Joint

Figure 6-40

The Skeletal System in Perspective

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The Integumentary System

• Synthesizes vitamin D3, essential for calcium and phosphorus absorption (bone maintenance and growth)

• Provides structural support

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The Muscular System

• Stabilizes bone positions; tension in tendons stimulates bone growth and maintenance

• Provides calcium needed for normal muscle contraction; bones act as levers to produce body movements

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The Nervous System

• Regulates bone position by controlling muscle contractions

• Provides calcium for neural function; protects brain, spinal cord; receptors at joints provide information about body position

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The Endocrine System

• Skeletal growth regulated by growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and sex hormones; calcium mobilization regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

• Protects endocrine organs, especially in brain, chest, and pelvic cavity

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The Cardiovascular System

• Provides oxygen, nutrients, hormones, blood cells; removes waste products and carbon dioxide

• Provides calcium needed for cardiac muscle contraction, blood cells produced in bone marrow

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The Lymphatic System

• Lymphocytes assist in the defense and repair of bone following injuries

• Lymphocytes and other cells of the immune response are produced and stored in bone marrow

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The Respiratory System

• Provides oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide

• Movements of ribs important in breathing; axial skeleton surrounds and protects lungs

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The Digestive System

• Provides nutrients, calcium, and phosphate

• Ribs protect portions of liver, stomach, and intestines

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The Urinary System

• Conserves calcium and phosphate needed for bone growth; disposes of waste products

• Axial skeleton provides some protection for kidneys and ureters; pelvis protects urinary bladder and proximal urethra

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The Reproductive System

• Sex hormones stimulate growth and maintenance of bones; surge of sex hormones at puberty causes acceleration of growth and closure of epiphyseal cartilages

• Pelvis protects reproductive organs of female, protects portion of ductus deferens and accessory glands in males