Rural Industrial Estate

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    A Model for Rural Industrial Estate as a Building

    block for Sustainable Development

    We have seen how Urban Industrial Estates havefacilitated the growth of industry in the country but thishas proved like unsustainable in various ways and therural sector has languished. Sustainable rural

    industrialization can be prompted by evolving anappropriate model of what may be called - a RuralIndustrial Estate (Centre). Once the feasibility of such amodel is adequately demonstrated, it can serve to be thebuilding blocks for augmenting sustainable ruralindustrialization and thereby sustainable employment inthe rural masses. This paper is an attempt is present thebasic philosophy, conceptual design and a broad techno-economic assessment of a typical model of RuralIndustrial Estate.

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    Role of Energy AND OTHER SOURCES

    Any kind of industrialization needs infrastructurefacilities, capital, skill, manpower and energy. Theurban/organised sector of industries utilisesconventional energy sources, which are finite andnon-local.

    Conventional sources are mostly centralisedsources and cannot be generated locally.Electricity generation from thermal, hydel ornuclear sources is highly capital intensive andgovernment has to provide high subsidy on thesesystems.

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    Petroleum products are limited and government

    has to invest a lot of foreign currency to importthese products which is becoming burden on the

    govt

    The other problems associated with these sources

    are pollution and rising cost.

    The rural industries based on appropriate

    technologies can meet their energy requirements

    from renewable sources in decentralised manner.

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    Energy a crucial parameter for agro-industrial activity.

    Conventional Energy Sources theiravailability and suitability for widespread Ruralapplications.

    Need to facilitate utilization of localrenewable resources of energy.

    Why have the so-called non-conventionalsources of energy NOT picked up adequately sofar?

    Need for matching of demands withappropriate energy modes.

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    Some Typical characteristics of

    renewable energy sources. Area specific

    Decentralized availability

    Wide variation A mix of different modes need to be

    used

    Availability controlled by Nature

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    Facilitating Renewable Energy Sources

    Devices for optimal utilization of Human

    Muscle Power Devices for effective use of Animal DraughtPower

    Devices for harnessing direct Solar Energy

    Devices for harnessing Wind Energy

    Devices for Efficient Utilization of HydelEnergy at small scale

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    Using Dry Biomass by

    (a) Direct Combustion (b) Gasification to Producer Gas

    Using Wet Biomass for methanation to

    Biogas (Waste-to-Energy conversion)

    Using Bio-diesel/ethanol as alternative fuelfor engines.

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    Typical Examples of Prospective Renewable

    Energy Technologies

    Coversion of Existing Engines into Biofuel

    Engines

    Animal Driven Prime Mover for low and

    medium speed R.I. Applications Enrichment and Bottling of Biogas for storage,

    remote transportation and for automotive use

    Low cost Biomass Burners and Gasifiers

    Fuel Efficient Pottery Kilns and other Furnaces

    Micro-hydel Primemover for power generation

    and for variety of R.I. Applications

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    THE CONCEPT

    Rural Industrial Estate has been visualized as a buildingblock for effective sustainable rural industrialization. Wecan not expect rural industrialization in isolation withouthaving basic infrastructure.

    Therefore the concept of Rural Industrial Estate is based onlocal resource utilisation with local manpower forsecondary and tertiary production processes. This localneed based strategy involves local peoples participation

    in managing their resources and value addition. Themain advantages can be reaped by pooling theirresources, capabilities, and networking of productionprocess at different levels of the economic activity withability to introduce modern S&T inputs.

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    The Gandhian model of 'Gram Swarajya'

    provides a sound basis to understand this. The

    main parameters of Gandhian model are:

    Mode of production should be decentralized facilitate

    production by masses', eco-friendly and with use of

    local resources.

    I should primarily be based on renewable energy as

    well as natural resources.

    With time it should be helpful on one hand to providestability and sustainable employment to rural masses

    and on the other help in regenerating the eco-system

    and thus the renewable resources.

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    Services expected from the RIE to Rural

    Sector Energy supply for domestic and R I purpose using local

    renewable energy resources. Provide sanitation service to the cluster, waste-to-energy

    conversion and make available bio manures, bio pesticides

    Provide necessary central facilities such as a ruralengineering workshop, quality assurance lab, storagefacilities etc needed for the area.

    Eco generation of the area including augmentation ofanimal resource, wasteland energy and herbal plantationand waste resource of the area.

    Provide marketing support database and training torural entrepreneurs and artisans in the area promotingemployment and stability

    Develop selective rural industries as per need forcatering to local needs and for value addition of localproduce for award distribution.

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    Major Components of RIE

    Energy conversion technologies fordecentralized power and other energyrequirements

    Dairy for cowdung and breed improvement

    Nursery for waste land development

    Set of rural industries for processing locally

    available raw materials, Repair, maintenance and service center for

    Marketing of products.

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    RAW-MATERIAL

    PROCUREMENT-STORAGEPRODUCTS

    MARKETING

    DAIRY FARM

    ANDBREEDING CENTRE

    ENERGY-

    PLANTATION-

    WASTE LAND

    AFORESTATION

    BIO-MANUREPRODUCTION

    RURAL ENGG.

    and CRAFTS

    WORKSHOPS

    QUALI

    TYTRAINI

    NG &

    ASSUR

    ACNCE

    CONSU

    LTANC

    Y

    SERVIC

    ES

    INTEGRATION, REGULATION, STORAGE

    Electrical Thermal Mechanical

    Processing of Dry Agro-animal-forest Waste and

    woody biomass

    Processing of moist

    animal/ human/ agro-waste for

    Bio-methanation

    Bio-liquid fuels (bio-diesel/ethanol) production from

    agro-forest waste

    POWER-HOUSE with RENEWABLES

    Gasifier

    Micro-

    Hydel/ Wind

    (as available)

    Solar

    collectors

    & p-v

    Animal

    driven

    prime-

    mover

    ADPM

    Bio-gas

    Services &Employment

    ADMN.

    OFFICE

    SERVICES

    V.I.

    UTILITIES

    COLD-

    STORE

    CENTRAL

    FACITLITIES

    V.I. V.I.V.I.

    MILK / FOOD PROCESSING AND

    OTHER SELECTIVE V.I. UNITS

    Local resources from

    surrounding

    villages/waste

    land etc.

    Local

    resources

    from

    surrounding

    villages

    Conceptual design and layout of a typical RIE

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    Number of Villages associated with RIE 5

    Households Per Village 200

    Family members per household 6

    Total human Population per village 1200

    Cattle per household 2

    Total Animal population per village 400 200 ( Dairy )

    Geographical area Ha 800 25

    Waste Land Ha 240

    Availability of wet dung/day Kg 4086 1021

    Unit

    Information of

    a typical

    VILLAGE

    Information

    of a

    typical RIE

    RIE- Model (Assumptions)

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    Dairy and Cattle breeding

    center

    Dairy is an essential component of RIE. Dairy willprovide a base for supply of raw material

    (cowdung) for biogas production, milk fornutrition in villages and processing in ruralindustries. Dairy will consists of 200 cattle, out ofwhich there will be 100 cows, 50 buffalos and 50calves. At a point of time there will be 100milching animals. Average investment on animaldairy and breeding center (Goshala) including thecost on animals is about Rs 25 lakhs. Dairy willalso act as a breed improvement center in the

    cluster of villages.

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    Energy Conversion Technologies

    Based on the local availability of resources, provenrenewable energy technologies are adopted for supply ofelectricity, thermal and mechanical energy.

    The basic components of the Energy ConversionTechnologies (ECT) will be biogas plants, gasifier, IC

    engines with generators, animal driven prime movers andbiofuels.

    About 200 kW of energy generation capacity will beavailable from these sources locally. These can beenhanced depending on the needs of the area and

    availability of the locally available sources. T