Resources from sea notes

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  • 1. CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 17 Resources from the Sea

2. Food from the Sea Give a man a fish, you feed him for a day Teach him how to fish, and you feed him for life! Seaweeds, Jellyfish, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Turtles, Worms, Crabs, Oysters Finfish = fish harvested= 84% world catch 3. What percentage of the worlds food comes from the ocean? 4. only 1% 5. Even at 1% world total It is one of the worlds most important protein sources! Finfish =16% of protein eaten around the world! 6. Figure 17.02 World Human Population Growth! Domestication of Animals and Plants Better Sanitation Advances in Medicine Projection: 8.9 Billion by 2050 7. Major Marine Fishing Areas of the World Boundaries are established by the FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Numbers in millions of tons! 8. What are the worlds major fishing areas? Bering Sea,Newfoundland,Coast of Peru,SW and NW Africa 9. What makes a good fishing spot? Rich WIDE continental shelf. Easy to harvest demersal (bottom) species. Primary production is higher over the shelfsupporting abundant life!Good upwelling of nutrients inthese major fishing areas too! 10. Protein deficiency is a major cause of disease and death in poor developing countries 11. 12. 13. 14. 6 Major Fishing Nations Decline in world total China may overstate for promotion Perus catch is up and down due to anchovy up and down populations 15. Increased demand for seafood in affluent countries and growing population increases pressure on food resources from the sea. More effective gear Use of satellites to find fish Increased efficiency Long range vessels 16. Examples of Fishing Methods 17. Examples of Fishing Methods 18. Which country / culture eats more fish on average per person? Japanor United States 19. Japan average of159 lb.of fishper person every year United States average of46 lb . of fish per person per year 20. 21. Major Food Species Clupeoid Fishes Small plankton-feeding fishin huge schools Herrings, Sardines, Anchovies 22. Herrings Sardines Anchovies 23. Fish Protein Concentrate orFish Flour odorless powder for protein supplement Fish Meal Feed for poultry, livestock or farmed fish Fish Oil margarine, cosmetics, paints, fertilizers, pet food Wow! 1/3 of fish catch 24. Demersal Cold Water Species come in 2 nd ! Cods, Pollock,Alaskan Walleye,Haddock,Flatfish are all caughtwith trawlsdragged on bottom! Many of these cheap fish are being over-fished! 25. Cod Fish What a Halibut! 26. King Fish = Salmon Valuable Catch in the North Pacific! 27. Tuna One of the most important open-ocean fish thatcross the tropical oceans.High Priced Fish for affluent countries - Canned or Raw Caught with high-tech equipment on boats,long lines and gill nets. 28. Mollusks are next most valuable group of marine food after fish. The Octopus is valued as a delicacy 29. Other Eaten Fish! Seaweeds (in Far East) Sea Urchinsfor their gonads or roe(in Japan) Roe can be called UNI(eaten raw) Sea Turtles for eggs Seals and Whales 30. Theoretical Population Growth Chart 31. Figure 17.09b Rate of Growth is related to Population Size and is highest at Intermediate Abundances 32. Renewable Resource! Replace Themselves 33. Even though they are RENEWABLE THEY ARE NOTINEXHAUSTIBLE! 34. Sustainable Yield Catch is large enough to prevent the population from growing but not so large as to reduce it! 35. Catch-Effort Curve 36. Fishing Rights for a country used toextend only 3 miles offshore,but now extend 200 miles offshore! 90% of the Oceans fisheries arewithin a countrys control. But The open ocean is common property! 37. Mariculture Aquaculture 38. Maricultureis a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An Oyster Farm in New Zealand 39. Milkfish being harvested from a brackish-water pondin the Philippines. 40. A Japanese Flounder (Halibut) grown at amariculture facility in Hawaii 41. Aquacultureis the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish and even plants 42. Greenpeace Artificially red salmon flesh on sale doesnt reveal the rampant destruction that this industry causes in regions where the fish are produced.Expanding at a rapid rate, fish farming now accounts for over30 percent of all fish protein consumed annually in the world. But it is single-handedly responsible for the destruction of countless ecosystems and the fishing communities that rely upon them, in some of the most vulnerable marine environments on the planet. 43. Drawback of mariculture Pollution! Thousands of fish in ponds or pens with huge amounts of feces, urine, uneaten food and poor water quality and harmful algal blooms with toxic chemicals. Antibiotics, pesticides, and syntheticpigments and colors. Destruction of natural resourcesto make these farms too! 44. Saltwater and freshwater crocodiles grown together in New Guinea for their valuable skin. Its also a way to dispose of chicken offal. 45. Genetic Engineering Biotechnology alters DNA to produce faster-growing more disease-resistant or better-tasting fish. Some of these escape and breed with wild populations! 46. Sponge from Fiji being grown for chemicalsthat kill worms and human parasites. 47. Ocean Mining Seabed is source of many minerals New technologies help to make it feasible as land ores become exhaused 48. Other resources from the Sea! Recreation Sport Fishing Oil and Gas Aquarium Trade Desalination Plants Minerals (Table salt) Energy 49. OTECOcean Thermal Energy Conversion circulates ammonia or liquids that when evaporate power turbine generators. 50. Potential sources of electricity from the sea include tides, waves, currents, and the temperature difference between surface and deep layer (OTEC)