Module 1 – The History and Scope of Psychology Module 2 – Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions.

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<p>Unit 1 History and Approaches in Psychology</p> <p>Unit 1 History and Approaches in PsychologyModule 1 The History and Scope of PsychologyModule 2 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer QuestionsWhat is Psychology?The science of behavior and the mindbehavior - observable actions of a person or animalmind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiencesscience an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts / data and well described methods</p> <p>What is Psychology?A set of questions about mental functioningtrace back to philosophyAristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questionsthe scientific methodevolved over centuries, first in physicsA product of historyphilosophy asked many of the basic questionsphysiology used similar methods</p> <p>Prescientific PsychologyHow do the mind and the body relate?Does much of what we know come built in, or do we start as blank slates?</p> <p>Socrates and PlatoSocrates and his student, Plato, did not agree with the early Hebrews and viewed mind as separate from the body and continuing after death.They viewed some knowledge as built within us (nature).</p> <p>AristotlePlatos student, Aristotles love for data distinguished him from his teacher and Socrates.Derived principles from careful observations.His observations told him that the soul was not separate (monism body dies, soul dies) from the body and that knowledge is NOT preexisting; it grows from your memories and stored in your memories.</p> <p>DescartesAgreed with Plato and Socrates about the existence of innate ideas and the minds being entirely distinct from the body and able to survive its death.How does the immaterial mind and physical body communicate?</p> <p>LockeEssay Concerning Human UnderstandingFamously argued that the mind at birth is a blank slate a white paper upon which experience writes.Empiricism knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.</p> <p>Philosophical DevelopmentsEmpiricism vs. NativismNativism is the view that elementary ideas are innateIf knowledge is innate What is the purpose of education?Can intellect be changed by experience?Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences?This is known as Nature vs. Nurture appears throughout modern psychology</p> <p>Wilhelm WundtWilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)Leipzig, Germanywrote the first psychology textbookapplied laboratory techniques to study of the mindstructuralism - identify atoms of the mindfocused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times</p> <p>Wundt continuedWilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879).Used Introspection to study a subjects consciousness. They reported sensations and feelings about a stimulus. </p> <p>StructuralismStructuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. In addition to quality, and intensity (part of Wundts theory), Edward Titchener added clarity to his theory.</p> <p>FunctionalismFunctionalism focused on how behavioral processes functionhow they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish--with a focus on the ongoing stream of consciousnessWilliam James developed this theory.</p> <p>Pioneers of PsychologyEdward Titchener (1867-1927)Structuralism introspection (looking within)William James (1842-1910)started psychology at Harvard in 1870sfunctionalism - influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environmentSigmund Freud (1856-1939)Austrian physician that focused on illnesspsychoanalytic theory of mental disorders</p> <p>Sigmund FreudAustrian physicianPsychoanalytic theory of mental disordersId (instinct), Ego (reality), Superego (morality)The Couch</p> <p>More PioneersAlfred Binet (1857-1911) French intelligence researcherdeveloped first intelligence testIvan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist discovered conditioned reflexes (Dog salivating) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)American psychologist at Harvardstudied learning and effect of reinforcementbehaviorism </p> <p>PsychologyDefinition of PsychologyThe science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)</p> <p>Nature v. NurtureNature some ideas are inbornNurture the mind is a blank slate (how our experiences shape who we are or whom we become)</p> <p>Perspectives in PyschologyPerspective is a way of viewing phenomenaPsychology has multiple perspectivesEthological- evolutionaryBiologicalPsychoanalyticCognitiveCross- cultural - socioculturalHumanisticBehavioral</p> <p>Current Perspectives</p> <p>DarwinismThe study of animal behavior in the natural environment rather than in a lab settingInfluenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns Natural Selection Evolution</p> <p>RESEARCHPsychology v. Applied PsychologyBiological ResearchStudy the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behaviorFocus may be at various levelsindividual neuronsareas of the brainspecific functions like eating, emotion or learningInterest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences</p> <p>Clinical ResearchView of behavior based on experience treating patientsPsychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud )both a method of treatment and a theory of the mindbehavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influencesdrives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviorearly childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations</p> <p>Clinical ResearchView of behavior based on experience treating patientsHumanistic approachdeveloped by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogersbehavior reflects innate actualization focus on conscious forces and self perceptionMore positive view of basic forces than Freuds</p> <p>Socio-Cultural PsychologyThe study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groupsHow are peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture?What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?How do Individualist and Collectivist cultures vary?</p> <p>Cognitive ResearchHow is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ?Influences includePiaget - studied intellectual developmentChomsky - studied languageCybernetics - science of information processing</p> <p>Psychologys SubfieldsBasic ResearchBiological psychologists explore the links between brain and mindDevelopmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tombCognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problemsPersonality psychologists investigate our persistent traitsSocial psychologists explore how we view and affect one another</p> <p>Psychologys SubfieldsApplied ResearchIndustrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplaceClinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders</p> <p>Areas of SpecializationClinicalabnormal behavior and psychological disorderspsychologist vs. psychiatristHealth psychologypsychological factors in physical healthCounselingdealing with normal life situations provide guidance </p> <p>Areas of SpecializationDevelopmental Psychological change over the life spanSocial, cognitive, personalitySchoolCounseling and guidance in school settingsEducationalLearning and teaching</p> <p>Psychobiologybrain and behaviorstudied at many levels; often uses animals as research modelExperimentalbasic laboratory focusanimals or humansLearning, memory, motivationCognitiveExperimental Human memory, perception, etc.</p> <p>Modern PsychologyPsychiatryA branch of medicine dealing with psychological disordersPracticed by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy</p>


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