1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 2.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 2 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? The Scientific Method Goals and Tools of Psychology Description Correlation Experimentation </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Why Do Psychology? 3 How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do! </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> What About Intuition &amp; Common Sense? Personal interviewers may rely too much on their gut feelings when meeting with job applicants. 4 Taxi/ Getty Images Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Hindsight Bias and Overconfidence 5 Hindsight Bias is the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. Anything seems commonplace once explained. Overconfidence: Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. Both hindsight bias and overconfidence lead us to overestimate our intuition. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Scientific Attitude 6 The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong). Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 The Scientific Approach Most people have greater difficulty thinking of psychology and other behavioral sciences as science. In part this is because many people misunderstand what science is. Research involving molecules and chromosomes seems more scientific than research involving emotions, memories, or social interactions, for example. Whether an area of study is scientific has little to do with the topics it studies. Rather science is defined in terms of the approaches used to study the topic. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 Can we study EVERYTHING scientifically? Is there life after death? Are there angels? </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Solvable Problems Science only deals with solvable problems. Researchers can investigate only those questions that are answerable, given current knowledge and research techniques. In sum, to be considered scientific: 1.the questions addressed must be potentially solvable 2.observations must be systematic and empirical 3.research must be conducted in a manner that is publicly verifiable Pseudoscience involves evidence that masquerades as science but that fails to meet one or more of the three criteria used to define science. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 How Do Psychologists Ask &amp; Answer Questions? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Theory 11 A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. For example: Social Learning Theory People learn through observing others' behavior. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Hypothesis 12 A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. For example: One hypothesis from the Social Learning Theory: People who watch violent films display more aggressive behavior. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Research 13 Research would require us to administer surveys or experiments. For example: Conduct a research study to examine if there is a relationship between frequency of watching violent films and aggressive behaviors. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 The Scientific Method Operational Definition a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables How you are going to measure aggression is your operational definition for aggression. Operational definition for violent films. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Example violent movies and aggression Hypothesis? There is a relationship between frequency of watching violent films and aggressive behaviors Operational definition of variables? Exposure to violent movies: number of times a person watches violent movies in a week in the last 3 months Aggression: Frequency of behavior that aims to harm other people. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Research Process (1) Theory: Social learning theory People learn through observing others' behavior. (2) Hypothesis: People who watch violent films display more aggressive behavior. (3) Research and observations: Is there a relation between frequency of watching violent films and aggressive behaviors </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 The Scientific Method Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances usually with different participants in different situations Example </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 Goals of Psychology 1.To describe behavior and mental processes 2.To predict behavior and mental processes 3.To explain and understand behavior and mental processes 4.To influence/control behavior and mental processes </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Descriptive Methods 1.To describe human and animal behavior and mental processes Case study Surveys Observations (naturalistic or lab) Goals and Tools of Psychology </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Descriptive Methods 20 Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Example: Is language uniquely human? Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Descriptive Methods 21 Case Study Researchers make case studies to examine rare cases: Example: school shooting Case studies can suggest hypotheses for further studies. Problems: Cannot make generalizations. Conclusions can be misleading. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people (usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people) Examples: Media surveys Ko University student satisfaction survey 22 http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org Descriptive Methods </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Survey Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads be allowed on television? Q: Should cigarette ads be forbidden on television? (allowed vs. forbid) 23 Wording Effects </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Survey If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is not random, the results may not be representative. Examples: Media surveys Ko University student satisfaction survey 24 Random Sampling </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Random Sampling Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study Random Sample a sample that (fairly) represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Randomly pick from the student list </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Naturalistic Observation 26 Descriptive Methods </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (or in more controlled environments) without trying to manipulate and control the situation Examples: Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild Observing preschool childrens social behaviors Recording self-seating patterns in a multi-racial school lunch room. 27 Descriptive Methods </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 1.To describe human and animal behavior and mental processes Case study Surveys Observations (naturalistic/lab) Summary </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 Goals of Psychology 2. To predict behaviors, thoughts, feelings, change and so on Mainly by way of assessing the relationship between two or more variables -Correlational studies </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Definition of Variable Variable Any characteristic or attribute that varies in amount and kind Examples: Age Weight Height Self-esteem Reaction time in a learning experiment Stress level Achievement motivation </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Correlation 31 Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = 0.37 + Prediction </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 Prediction Positive correlation: one variable incerases, the other one also increases, or vice versa. Example: r = +.22 (age and intelligence) Negative correlation: one variable decreases, the other one increases. Example: r = -.85 (self-esteem and depression) Correlation </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 Correlation </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 Q: Which of the following correlation coefficients reflects the strongest correlation? A) +.10 B) -.64 C) +.35 D) -.10 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 Correlations do not permit inferring causality </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 Violence viewing Actualized violence Violence viewing OR Inferring Causality If we know that two variables are highly correlated, can we determine the causal relationship between them? Correlation does not mean causation! </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 Instability at home Violence viewing Actualized violence A third variable could cause A and B: </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 or Another Example </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 In order to determine causality we must turn to experimental methods. CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 Goals of Psychology 3. To explain and understand behavior and mental processes Experimentation Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 Experimentation Experiment an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 Experimentation Independent Variable (IV) the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Dependent Variable (DV) the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 Experimentation Wacth violent films Aggressive behavior </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 Experimentation Experimental Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment (to one version of the independent variable) Control Condition the condition of an experiment that does not expose participants to the treatment serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 Example: The Bobo Doll Experiment Participants: 72 3- and 6-year- old children. The total of 72 children were split in to 2 groups. One group was put into an aggressive model scenario: the adult attacked the Bobo doll by hitting it. Another group was used as a control group and not exposed to any adult model at all. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 Example: The Bobo Doll Experiment Measure: The final stage of the experiment took place in a room in which the child was left alone for 20 min. with a series of aggressive and non-aggressive toys to play with. Results: Children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in physically aggressive ways than those who were not exposed to the aggressive model. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 Figure 7.1 Watch nothing Watch violent model/movie Measure aggressive behaviors Experimental Condition Control Condition </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors Exploring Cause &amp; Effect </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 Figure 7.1 Watch nothing Watch violent movie Measure aggressive behaviors Experimental Condition Control Condition Other variables here can be: socioeconomic background (income) </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 Experimentation Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 Experimentation Single-Blind Procedure the research participants are uninformed (blind) about what treatment, if any, they are receiving. Do antidepressant drugs really work? Placebos can have significant antidepressant effects To show superior efficacy to placebo </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 Experimentation Placebo an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 Experimentation Double-Blind Procedure both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo commonly used in drug-evaluation studies </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> 54 Another Example Study: One of the factors for prejudice is lack of knowledge about members of the other group Hypothesis: Watching a documentary film about the history of the outgroup will result in change in prejudice (reduce prejudice) IV DV Manipulation (Experimental stimulus) </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> 55 </li> </ul>


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