Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I-

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Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I-. Our intuition and common sense. Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Overconfidence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Module 2</p><p>Research StrategiesHow Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions-I-</p></li><li><p>Our intuition and common senseHindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenonOverconfidencewe tend to think that we know more than we doPerceiving order in random eventsOur eagerness to make sense of the worldWe overestimate our own intuition</p></li><li><p>Thinking Critically With Psychological ScienceTo believe with certainty, we must begin by doubting Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusionsexamines assumptionsidentifies hidden valuesevaluates evidenceassesses conclusions</p></li><li><p>The Scientific MethodThe Process of ResearchObserving a phenomenonFormulating an ideaTesting an ideaGeneralizing or refining the idea</p></li><li><p>The Scientific MethodFormulating an ideaInitial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenonTesting an ideaOrganizing countless observations into a theoryFormulating testable predictions: hypothesesTesting the hypothesesUsing operational definitions of conceptsGeneralizing or refining the idea</p></li><li><p>The Scientific MethodTheory an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.Theory explains the underlying reason of the observed phenomenonProduce hypothesesHypothesis a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.</p></li><li><p>The Scientific MethodWHY?Theory explains the underlying reason</p></li><li><p>Testing hypotheses using operational definitionsOperational Definitiona statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variablesAlso enables other researchers to replicate example-intelligence may be operationally defined as the score obtained from the intelligence test measuresPsychological well-being can be operationally defined as high level of life satisfaction and low depression. Academic success can be operationally defined as GPA. </p></li><li><p>The Scientific MethodReplicationrepeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstancesusually with different participants in different situationsthe research findings can be generalizable to other samples/situations.</p></li><li><p>Methods of psychologyDescription (to describe) Correlation (to predict) Experimentation (to understand)</p></li><li><p>Methods of psychologyTo describe human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct: Case studiesSurveysObservations (naturalistic / lab)</p></li><li><p>DescriptionCase Studyobservation technique in which on individual (or few incidences) are studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principalsStudies of brain damaged individualsPiagetSuggest hypotheses for further studies</p><p>Problems??May be unrepresentative</p></li><li><p>DescriptionSurveyLooks at many cases with less depth.Ask people to report thier behaviors or opinions.</p><p>Market surveysKo University student satisfaction survey </p><p>Problems??</p></li><li><p>Who do we survey?Usually question a representative, random sample of people seleced from a population. Populationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studyRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion</p></li><li><p>How do we ask questions?If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?</p><p>Should be39.4 %Oppose60.6 %If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law because it would be too difficult to enforce?Should be26.0 %Oppose74.0 %</p></li><li><p>DescriptionNaturalistic Observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (or in more controlled environments) without trying to manipulate and control the situation</p><p>Dating behaviors of Ko University students?</p><p>Problems?</p></li><li><p>Methods of psychology2. To predict human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct - Correlational studies: the examination of the quantitative relationships between two or more variables</p><p>how does one behavior relate to the occurrence of another behavior?if we know one behaviors pattern can we then, in turn, predict the pattern of occurrence of another behavior?</p></li><li><p>Variable DefinedAny characteristic or attribute that varies in amount and kindGenderSuccessWeight, Height Self-esteem Reaction time in a learning experimentIntelligenceAchievement motivation</p></li><li><p>CorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other</p><p>Correlation coefficientIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)r = +.37</p></li><li><p>Correlation does not imply causation Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships(1)Low self-esteemDepression(2)DepressionLow self-esteemLow self-esteemDepression(3)Distressing eventsor biologicalpredispositioncould causecould causecould causeororand</p><p>cannot be generalizableAny characteristic or attribute of persons, objects, or events that can take on different numerical values. These different values are called attributes So gender: variable female: attribute personality: variable extravert: attribute</p></li></ul>

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