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    Kyoto ProtocolFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, as of December 2011,

    Green = Countries that have signed and ratified the treaty

    (Annex I & II countries in dark green)

    Grey = Countries that have not yet decided [citation needed][vague]

    Brown = No intention to ratify at this stage. [1]

    Blue = Canada, which withdrew from the Protocol in December 2011.[2]

    Kyoto Parties with first period (2008-2012) greenhouse gas emissions limitations targets and the percentage

    change in their carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion between 1990 and 2009. For more detailed

    country/region information, see Kyoto Protocol and government action.

    Theneutralityof this map isdisputed.

    Please see the discussion on thetalk page.(October 2011)

    Overview map of states committed to greenhouse gas (GHG) limitations in the first Kyoto Protocol period (2008

    2012):[3][vague]

    Dark grey = Annex I Parties who have agreed to reduce their GHG emissions below their individual base year

    levels (see definition in this article)

    Grey = Annex I Parties who have agreed to cap their GHG emissions at their base year levels

    Pale grey = Non-Annex I Parties who arent obligated by caps or Annex I Parties with an emissions cap that allows

    their emissions to expand above their base year levels or Countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol [vague]

    For specific emission reduction commitments of Annex I Parties, see the section of the article on 2012 emission

    targets and "flexible mechanisms".

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    EU-region as a whole has in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol committed itself to a 8% reduction, however many

    memberstates (like Greece,Spain,Ireland and Sweden) have in the internal EU-distribution agreement not

    committed themselves to any reduction. While France has committed itself not to expand its emissions (0%

    reduction)[4]. As to Greenland: is partly committed through Denmark. However nothing states that Greenland has

    committed itself to a reduction towards Denmark.

    The Kyoto Protocol is aprotocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

    Change(UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an

    internationalenvironmentaltreatywith the goal of achieving the "stabilization ofgreenhouse

    gasconcentrations in theatmosphereat a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic

    interference with the climate system."[5]

    The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16

    February 2005. As of September 2011, 191 states have signed and ratifiedthe protocol.[6]The only

    remaining signatory not to have ratified the protocol is the United States. Other states yet to ratify

    Kyoto include Afghanistan, Andorra and South Sudan, after Somalia ratified the protocol on 26 July

    2010.

    Under the Protocol, 37 countries ("Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four

    greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide,methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two

    groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them, and all member

    countries give general commitments. Annex I countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse

    gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level. Emission limits do not include emissions by international

    aviation and shipping, but are in addition to the industrial gases,chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which

    are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

    The benchmark 1990 emission levels accepted by the Conference of the Parties of UNFCCC (decision

    2/CP.3) were the values of "global warming potential" calculated for theIPCC Second Assessment

    Report.[7]These figures are used for converting the various greenhouse gas emissions into

    comparableCO2equivalents(CO2-eq) when computing overall sources and sinks.

    The Protocol allows for several "flexible mechanisms", such asemissions trading, theclean

    development mechanism (CDM) andjoint implementation to allowAnnex I countries to meet their

    GHG emission limitations by purchasing GHG emission reductions credits from elsewhere, through

    financial exchanges, projects that reduce emissions in non-Annex I countries, from other Annex I

    countries, or from annex I countries with excess allowances.

    Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report of inventories of all anthropogenic

    greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the Kyoto

    Protocol. These countries nominate a person (called a "designated national authority") to create and

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