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John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People

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John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People. Chapter 23 War and Society 1914-1920. The Great War. Long-term Causes Militarism Imperialism Nationalism System of Alliances. The Great War. Short-term cause - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People

  • CHAPTER 23WAR AND SOCIETY1914-1920John M. Murrin, et al.Liberty, Equality, PowerA History of the American People

  • The Great WarLong-term CausesMilitarismImperialismNationalismSystem of Alliances

  • The Great WarShort-term cause Archduke Ferdinand (heir to throne in Austria-Hungary) assassinated by Serbian nationalist in 1914System of Alliances takes effect

  • European Great WarWilson declared US neutralityLusitania sunk by German U-boats (submarines) in 1915Germany signs Sussez pledge in 1916

  • Election of 1916

  • US Involvement

    Germany announced unlimited submarine warfare = US breaks diplomatic relations

  • US InvolvementZimmerman Note proposed German-Mexican alliance

  • Russian Revolution new government signed peace treaty with Germany prompting Allied intervention in Russian civil war

    US Involvement

  • US InvolvementU.S. Declaration of War April 6, 1917

  • Wilsons Fourteen PointsAbolish secret treatiesFreedom of the seasArms limitationsSelf-determinationMinority rightsLeague of Nations

  • Mobilizing for WarCommittee on Public InformationGeorge CreelPropaganda to support the war effort

  • Espionage & Sedition ActsSchenck v U.S.Civil rights can be limited if there is a clear and present danger of harm the U.S.

    liberty cabbageliberty steakMobilizing for War

  • Mobilizing for WarCartoon by H. J. Glintenkamp from July 1917 issue of The Masses. This cartoon was one of three cited by the Postmaster as violating the Espionage Act.

  • Mobilizing for WarWar Industries BoardNational War Labor Board

  • Mobilizing for WarFood AdministrationHebert Hoover Fuel Administration

  • Mobilizing for WarGovernment control of railroads legislation v. volunteerismLiberty and Victory loans (2/3 initial cost)

  • Mobilizing for WarConscription

  • US Troops Over ThereGeneral John (Black Jack) PershingUS Operations in Europe

  • Dead Americans of the 38th Infantry at Mezy July 21, 1918

  • Field of French and German dead in Champagne

  • Armenian Christians massacred by Turks

  • Russian Mass Grave

  • Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918 Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvove, FranceNovember 8, 1918

  • Modern WarTanks

  • Modern WarSubmarines

  • Modern WarAirplanes

  • Modern WarGas

  • Modern WarTrench Warfare

  • Surrender November 11, 1918

  • The Big FourPartisan perception of Wilsons attendanceCompromise & the League of Nations

    Treaty of Versailles

  • Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more. David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany. Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again. Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.

  • Rhineland demilitarizedWar guiltReparationsMilitary restrictions on Germany

    Treaty of Versailles

  • Ratification in the US SenateIrreconcilables & Reservationists opposed treatyWilson went on speaking tour to garner support

    Treaty of Versailles

  • Senate opinion on the treaty was divided into three distinct views:

    Supporters. Democrats loyal to Wilson wanted the treaty to be ratified in its original form without any amendments or reservations; some within this group were receptive to a small number of minor changes.

    Reservationists. This group claimed to be in favor of the treaty, but only after including a series of reservations prior to ratification. Senator Lodge of Massachusetts was the leader of this faction and was personally dedicated to frustrating the aims of his rival, Wilson. Other senators in this group sincerely favored the treaty, but wanted some modification to protect vital American interests. The Reservationists were the largest of the three factions.

    Irreconcilables. Isolationist senators, including Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, William E. Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, opposed the treaty and American entry into the League of Nations under any circumstances. They had counseled against entering the war in the first place and now opposed participation in European affairs.

  • Treaty of VersaillesRatification in the US SenateWilson collapsed on the speaking trail then suffered a major stroke in the White HouseSenate voted on the treaty with the Lodge reservations attached

  • Treaty rejected - twiceTreaty of Versailles

  • Election of 1920Warren G. Harding (Rep.)Promised a return to normalcyReturn to pre-WWI isolationism

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