CHAPTER 23WAR AND SOCIETY1914-1920John M. Murrin, et al.Liberty, Equality, PowerA History of the American People
The Great WarLong-term CausesMilitarismImperialismNationalismSystem of Alliances
The Great WarShort-term cause Archduke Ferdinand (heir to throne in Austria-Hungary) assassinated by Serbian nationalist in 1914System of Alliances takes effect
European Great WarWilson declared US neutralityLusitania sunk by German U-boats (submarines) in 1915Germany signs Sussez pledge in 1916
Election of 1916
Germany announced unlimited submarine warfare = US breaks diplomatic relations
US InvolvementZimmerman Note proposed German-Mexican alliance
Russian Revolution new government signed peace treaty with Germany prompting Allied intervention in Russian civil war
US InvolvementU.S. Declaration of War April 6, 1917
Wilsons Fourteen PointsAbolish secret treatiesFreedom of the seasArms limitationsSelf-determinationMinority rightsLeague of Nations
Mobilizing for WarCommittee on Public InformationGeorge CreelPropaganda to support the war effort
Espionage & Sedition ActsSchenck v U.S.Civil rights can be limited if there is a clear and present danger of harm the U.S.
liberty cabbageliberty steakMobilizing for War
Mobilizing for WarCartoon by H. J. Glintenkamp from July 1917 issue of The Masses. This cartoon was one of three cited by the Postmaster as violating the Espionage Act.
Mobilizing for WarWar Industries BoardNational War Labor Board
Mobilizing for WarFood AdministrationHebert Hoover Fuel Administration
Mobilizing for WarGovernment control of railroads legislation v. volunteerismLiberty and Victory loans (2/3 initial cost)
Mobilizing for WarConscription
US Troops Over ThereGeneral John (Black Jack) PershingUS Operations in Europe
Dead Americans of the 38th Infantry at Mezy July 21, 1918
Field of French and German dead in Champagne
Armenian Christians massacred by Turks
Russian Mass Grave
Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918 Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvove, FranceNovember 8, 1918
Modern WarTrench Warfare
Surrender November 11, 1918
The Big FourPartisan perception of Wilsons attendanceCompromise & the League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more. David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany. Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again. Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.
Rhineland demilitarizedWar guiltReparationsMilitary restrictions on Germany
Treaty of Versailles
Ratification in the US SenateIrreconcilables & Reservationists opposed treatyWilson went on speaking tour to garner support
Treaty of Versailles
Senate opinion on the treaty was divided into three distinct views:
Supporters. Democrats loyal to Wilson wanted the treaty to be ratified in its original form without any amendments or reservations; some within this group were receptive to a small number of minor changes.
Reservationists. This group claimed to be in favor of the treaty, but only after including a series of reservations prior to ratification. Senator Lodge of Massachusetts was the leader of this faction and was personally dedicated to frustrating the aims of his rival, Wilson. Other senators in this group sincerely favored the treaty, but wanted some modification to protect vital American interests. The Reservationists were the largest of the three factions.
Irreconcilables. Isolationist senators, including Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, William E. Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, opposed the treaty and American entry into the League of Nations under any circumstances. They had counseled against entering the war in the first place and now opposed participation in European affairs.
Treaty of VersaillesRatification in the US SenateWilson collapsed on the speaking trail then suffered a major stroke in the White HouseSenate voted on the treaty with the Lodge reservations attached
Treaty rejected - twiceTreaty of Versailles
Election of 1920Warren G. Harding (Rep.)Promised a return to normalcyReturn to pre-WWI isolationism