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APG 1 st Semester Exam Review. Political Culture Shared! Democracy Individual Liberty Political Equality Equality of Opportunity/ Not Result Legal Equality

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APG 1 st Semester Exam Review Slide 2 Political Culture Shared! Democracy Individual Liberty Political Equality Equality of Opportunity/ Not Result Legal Equality Slide 3 Political Ideology Differences Liberal vs. Conservative Government involvement Economically Government involvement in Personal Conduct Slide 4 Political Ideology Liberals Conservatives Libertarians Communitarians Ds, Rs, and Is Today Slide 5 Elections in the United States Congressional/ Midterm Off-Year Slide 6 Likely Voters Higher Levels of Education (SES) White Older Married Church Goers Strong Party ID Slide 7 Non-Voters Young (18-24) Low Education Non-White Slide 8 Federalist #10 Publius, Madison Extended Republic Argument Factions will occur (inevitable) Ambition Check Ambition Public Weal Representative Government Slide 9 Federalist #51 Publius, Madison Men are not angels (nor gals) Those governing are not angels Separation of Powers Federalism Checks and Balances Slide 10 Evolution of the Nominating Process King Caucus National Nominating Convention Primary and Caucus Slide 11 Framers Distrust of Public Opinion Representative Democracy Electoral College Extended Republic Separation of Powers Federalism Slide 12 Controlling the White House (1968 Present) 1968 1972 1980 1984 1976 1992 1996 2008 1988 2000 2004 Slide 13 Changes in Party Organization (1968 1972) Highly Organized Well Funded Computer Mailings Advice and Information Fragmented In-Fighting Traditional versus New Democrats Slide 14 Democratic Party Has Lost Voters Catholics Unions Southerners Women African- Americans Jews Slide 15 Direct Democracy in the U.S. Initiative Referendum Recall 17 th Amendment New England Town meeting Direct Primary Slide 16 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause Slide 17 Voting Reform/ End of Fraudulent Voting Repeaters and floaters WVA turnout of 108% (1888) Australian Ballot Residency Requirements Strict Voter Registration Slide 18 Political Participation U.S.- voter turnout lower, participation in other ways higher (compared to European nations) Conventional vs. Unconventional Direct Action Supporting vs. Influencing Behavior Slide 19 Unconventional Participation Lack of Trust Increased Political Efficacy Strong Sense of Group Consciousness Slide 20 Political Socialization Family Schooling and Information Religion Peers and Occupation Spouse Slide 21 Voter Turnout, U.S. vs. Others No automatic registration No compulsory voting laws Two-step process (w/ registration) Cost of Registering Amount of elections in the U.S. Voter Fatigue Slide 22 Crosscutting Cleavage and Voting in the U.S. Race Ethnicity Gender Religion Region * Socioeconomic Status (SES) Slide 23 Political Ideology: Conservatives Individual Responsibility Rugged Individualism Lassiez Faire (Business) Market Driven Economy Regulation of Community Standards Slide 24 Political Ideology: Liberals Government remedy of social injustices Government regulation of economy Affirmative Action Separation of Church and state Slide 25 Types of Votes Majority Simple majority Super Majority Plurality Slide 26 U.S. Political Parties Two Major Parties (single-winner) Minor Parties Bolter Economic Protest Ideological Single-Issue Political Machines Slide 27 Patronage Informal Welfare System Pendleton Act Social Security Act Laws Reducing Voter Fraud Slide 28 Natural Rights John Locke Thomas Jefferson Property! Life Liberty Property Pursuit of Happiness Slide 29 United States Constitution Separation of Powers Federal System Strong National Government Checks and Balances Congress- Commerce and Taxation Delegated Powers Implied Powers Bicameral Legislature Slide 30 Critical Elections Two Types Party Realignment 1860, 1896, 1932 Also, 1800 and 1824 Slide 31 The Electoral College 538 Total Votes Votes per State Majority (270) to Win General and Electoral Elections Twelfth Amendment Role of the House (1800, 1824) Slide 32 Key Elections 1800 1824 1860 1896 1912 1932 2000 Slide 33 Weaknesses of the Articles Inability to tax Inability to regulate commerce No Executive or Judiciary Unicameral House Equal representation Slide 34 Success Under the Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Slide 35 Rights Imbedded in the Constitution Habeas Corpus Ex Post Facto Bill of Attainder Trial by Jury No Religious Test for Office Slide 36 Federalism Amendment Process Election Laws Points of Access Diversity of Public Policy Slide 37 Federal Elections Direct Election House of Representatives Senate (17 th Amendment) Indirect Election Presidency Nomination and Confirmation The Federal Judiciary Slide 38 Compromises in Philadelphia Great Compromise Three-fifths Compromise Slavery Compromises Executive Compromises Commerce Compromises Slide 39 Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Veto/ Override Impeachment Process Bicameral Legislature Marbury v. Madison (1803) Appointments/ Treaties Slide 40 Civil Rights Black Codes Literacy Tests Poll Taxes White Primaries Jim Crow Laws Brown v. B.O.E. Topeka (1954) Slide 41 Road to Philadelphia Articles of Confederation Mt. Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Shays Rebellion Philadelphia Convention Slide 42 Functions of Political Parties Sponsor/Nominate Candidates Structure the Voting Choice Propose Alternative Programs Coordinate Governing Process Slide 43 Devolution Revolution Nixon- New Federalism= Block Grants Reagan- New Federalism (also) Rehnquist Court= Lopez Case (1995) AFDC TANF (1996) Slide 44 New Deal Coalition Liberals Unions Catholics Jews European Ethnics Urban Workers City Dwellers Southern Whites (Solid South) Slide 45 The Amendment Process Proposal 2/3 Vote Both House and Senate Conventional called at request of 2/3 of the States Ratification 3/4 Vote State Legislatures Specially called Conventions in each State Slide 46 Weakening of Political Parties Pendleton Act (1883) The End of Fraudulent Voting Social Security Act (1935) Rise of the Primary Rise of the Candidate-Centered Campaign House members Bill of Rights (1970s) Slide 47 Political Campaigns (Pre-1968) Nominating Conventions Party Controlled Smoke-Filled Backrooms Shorter Campaigns Money Less Important Media Played Small Role

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