INDONESIA REDD NATIONAL STRATEGY AND READINESS PLAN
INDONESIA : CC relevanceCountry land area : app. 187 millions ha, population : app. 230 millions 7 major islands (from total of > 16 thousands islands), > 300 tribes,33 provinces, > 300 districts, autonomous governance system 60 % of the country area are forest land/state forest ( 37 % of them are degraded at various levels) Forest transition from the east (Papua : low historical DD) to the west (Sumatera : high historical DD, Java : forest cover increases) The Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry and Law No. 5/1990 on Biodivesity Conservation are the main references for managing forest resources (under Forestry Law (UU) No. 41/1999, customary/adat right is recognized) *
Forest & agric. industry dev.Pulp & paper plantation Estate crops plantation(oil palm, rubber, cocoa)Economic crisisDecentralizationMoratorium on forest conversionReduced AACLaw enforcementImproved forest management
YearDeforestation rate (Million ha/year)
YearForest Cover Change (million ha)
Drivers of DD in IndonesiaDeforestation * : forest conversion for other land uses (planned), encroachment (unplanned)
Forest Degradation** : forest fire, unsustainable harvesting (including illegal logging)
* : there is land use change (LUC)** : no LUC
Underlying causes : international market, other sectors development needs need to be addressed on and off forest.
OBJECTIVEIndonesias R-Plan is intended to assist Indonesia in improving management of forest resources according to sustainable principles.
Basis : Indonesias Long Term Development Plan (2006 2025). The fact that deforestation and degradation in the tropics account for about 20 % of total global carbon emissions has highlighted the potential of Indonesias forests to play a significant role in contributing positively towards climate change mitigation through delivering real reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and also through increased carbon sequestration, at the same time allow national development continue in a sustainable manner.
Approaches to achieve objectivesOverall approach : putting REDD to the mainstream of sector and national planning (ongoing process coordinated by Ministry of Development Planning)Specific approach in REDD Readiness , covers a range of activities : Analytical works (inc. REL/RL, MRV, Opp. Costs, Co-benefits, risks, etc)Policy dialogue and stakeholders communicationAwareness raising, capacity building, shared learningInstitutional arrangement (incl. distribution of benefits and responsibilities at all levels)Issues to be taken into account : REDD Indonesia (national approach with sub-national implementation) demand a strong link between central and local government , and across sectors and stakeholders/actors (three pillars of governance : government, civil societies, private sectors). Outcomes from negotiation process in COP and its relevant Bodies.
REDDI STRATEGY *
LEVELSTRATEGY CATEGORYNATIONALPolicy interventions to tackle drivers of Deforestation and Forest DegradationREDD regulations (REDD Guidelines and REDD Commission)Methodology (establishment of National REL and MRV system)Institutional (National Registry, distribution of incentives/responsibilities, capacity building, stakeholders communication, coordinations among REDD institutions)Analytical works (REL, MRV, Opportunity costs, Co-benefits, risks, etc)
REDDI STRATEGY (continued)*
LEVELSTRATEGY CATEGORYProvincial levelMethodology (establishment of Provincial REL and MRV system)Institutional (capacity building, stakeholders communication, coordinations among REDD institutions)Demonstration activities, Voluntary carbon projects
District levelMethodology (establishment of District REL and MRV system)Institutional (capacity building, stakeholders communication, coordinations among REDD institutions)Demonstration activities, Voluntary carbon projects
*CO2$ Reference Emission LevelStrategy MonitoringMarket/FundingDistribution12345WG-FCC REDDI Guideline REDDI CommitteeREDDI READINESS FRAMEWORKHistorical emission/future scenario
Forest cover and carbon stock changes, National registry
National approach,sub-nationalimplementationAttractiveness,Source of fundResponsibilities and benefits Developed from IFCA study (2007)Awareness raisingCapacity buildingAccess to dataAccess to technology
IFCA 2007 recommendations : REDD strategy for 5 landscapes : Production forest, Conservation forest, Timber plantation, Peat land, Oil palm plantation (related to LUC)
owner - FORDA, Ministry of Forestry
ESTIMATED COSTS FOR READINESS*
STRATEGY CATEGORYESTIMATED COSTS(US $ MILLION)Methodology (Establishment of Reference Emissions Level/REL and Development of Monitoring-Reporting- Verification/MRV System) 12.628Regulations, institutions, and analytical works6.236TOTAL : 18.864(excluding Demonstration Activities* andPolicy interventions to tackle drivers of DD**)
Climate changes issues in forestry : international context*
Sink enhancement A/R CDM(Kyoto Protocol)
Complicated rules and procedures very few A/R CDM exist (none in Indonesia)Gap : SFM, Conservation of forest, increase of carbon (Bali Action Plan) FIP (Forest Investment Programe)
A/R non-CDM ???Forest restoration ???
(REDD plus ?)REDD(UNFCCC/? KP? /other Protocol ?) ongoing process in negotiation (component : demonstration activities, capacity building & technology transfer, full implementation)
Demonstration Activities **
The costs of Demonstration Activities vary widely depending on the size and issues to be addressed/scope of activities learning from existing DA : Id Australia/KFCP, Id Germany, Id Korea, Id ITTO, Id-TNC
MINITRY OF FORESTRYREPUBLIC OF INDONESIAPolicy interventions to tackle drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation**
Develop more effective conservation and management of Protected Areas,Develop more effective management of Production Forests Options for forest harvesting and management to supply the requirements of pulp and paper industryOptions for supplying the requirements of the oil palm industry.Testing strategies for restoration of peatlandEnhance capacity of local community, including adat communities to engage in forest management through REDD activities.
Estimated Costs for 5 year phase REDD related investment up to 2012 : US $ 4 billion (Source : IFCA studies, 2007)*
Where (financial and other) resources come from ? : existing and potential sourcesBilateral : Existing : Australia (part of forest & CC cooperation), Germany (part of economic cooperation), Korea (part of R & D cooperation), Japan (TA) others (?)
Multilateral : UNREDD (USD 5,6 Million) , FCPF (US 3,6 M requested), FIP (?), others (?)
International organizations (including international NGOs) : e.g. CIFOR (esp. research finding), ICRAF (esp. research finding), ITTO (DA : US $ 800 000), CCAP, TNC, WWF, CI etc
Government of Indonesia through national budget and expertise
National NGOs (and IPOs)
? We request from FCPF*
R-Plan ComponentActivitiesRequested budget(US $ 1000)1Background Studies (follow up IFCA Studies) inc. further studies on drivers of DD and ways to address them1382 Management of REDD, consultation, communication, participation4913Design REDD Strategy : evaluate opportunity costs, risks, evaluate demonstration activities6524REDD implementation framework : assist institutional setting incl. national registry, institutional capacity building etc, 4695Assessment of environmental and social benefits, and other co-benefits3427Assist in developing REL/RL, data acquisition, background studies (coordinated activities : Australia - UNREDD - FCPF - others)7198Design MRV system (coordinated activities : Australia UNREDD FCPF others)285
Stakeholders consultations(the most challenging issue)
REDD : intensively since 2007 (FCC issues started from 1999) REDD R-Plan : Policy and scientific discussion (limited groups) December 2008 National consultation (draft R-Plan was distributed, March 2009), Sub-national (4 provinces, April May 2009)
Note : the FCPF R-Plan is part of the national REDD strategy (the substance has been communicated since 2007/prior to COP-13),
National REDD strategy, FCPF-R-Plan, UNREDD-NJP, are living documents, consultations/communication are ongoing and will be one of the main parts of the process.
Response to TAP commentsThe comments are constructive and clarifications have been done through conference call We also thankful for the very good and clear presentation in the 1sd day of FCPF-PC3 meeting, However, a number of improvement suggested by TAP cant be done before we start the activities f.e. REDD strategy, Component 3 b, c, d, detail how Indonesia will establish reference scenario, MRV system, further assessment of drivers of DD etc these are among activities we request for support.*
Notes for TAP, FMT, PC, ObserversNational REDD strategy should be considered as a living document, since the reason why is the National Strategy is not really clear to the TAP/FMT/PC is not only because of the level of capacity of the country, but also there is no clear guidance yet from the COP what will be the REDD mechanism (under negotiation).
The demand for stakeholders consultation (inclusiveness etc) country circumstances should be taken into account.
Indigenous People issues shall take into account national legislation and the existing national efforts to address the issue.
Ownership of R-Plan should not only be assessed from to composition of the R-Plan authors, but also how the process has been (and plan to be) managed.