1. Halls Classification of Cultures 1 ISTANBUL BILGI UNIVERSITYPRESENTED BY C.M. HERRINGTON, MAA, MAT
2. Introduction 2 This lecture is about the views of Dr. Edward Hall, ananthropologist who has specialized in how cultures related to one another. Some of his work has focused on the different assumptions that people haveregarding such basic belief systems as attitudes toward time, space, and other people. 3. The Personal Space Test31. Two people have a conversation during which Person A continues to move gradually closer to Person B, whole Person B remains standing in the same spot. Person A continues to move closer until Person B says that he or she is uncomfortable with the closeness.2. The conversation *test should begin with the participants approximately three feed apart, and Person A should move closer at increments of 3 inches.3. Measure the distance between Persons A and B when Person B says that he or she is uncomfortable. The experiment should be repeated , by the two people switching roles. 4. Discussion-post activity4 Discuss with the class how you felt during thisexperiment How did you feel when your conversation partner was too close?Too far? Did you notice difference between how people judged what was too close or toofar? Do you think that culture has anything to do with peoples expectations ofpersonal space?Try this experiment with someone from a different culturethan you outside the class and see what happens . 5. Personal Space5 6. Attitudes toward Time6A. I get impatient when someone is late.B. I am rarely lateCircle the number thatC. I would be insulted if someone was suppose to meet me at 10 and arrivedcorresponds to your feelings at 10:15 and didnt apologize or give me a good excuse.about each statement. Use theD. If I have a party and invite people forfollowing scale. 7, I expect them to really show up at 7, not 7:30.1-disagree strongly E. I believe the expression Time is2-disagree somewhatmoney has some truth to it.F. I get upset when I feel as if Im3-neither agree nor disagree wasting time.G. I always wear a wristwatch4-agree somewhatH. I try to do as much as possible in one5- agree stronglyday and I get frustrated if something (e.g. traffic) prevents me from doing what want. 7. Calculate Your Score7 What does your score tell you about your attitude toward time? Do you think there are great variations in scores in the class/Turkey/world? Do you think any of the variations are due to cultural attitudes? 8. Attitudes toward Interpersonal Relationships8 A. If I enter into a verbal contract withCircle the number thatsomeone, I always keep my word.corresponds to your feelings about B. If someone enters into a verbal contract witheach statement. me, I trust them and do not feel it isUse the following scale.necessary to get it all on paper. C. I would not marry a person who came from adisreputable family.1-disagree stronglyD. I would never do something that would2-disagree somewhat shame my family, even if I believed it was3-neither agree nor disagreeright. E. If there is corruption in a company, I believe4-agree somewhatthat the head of that company should take5- agree strongly responsibility , even if she or he was notinvolved.Share your responses and justify F. In decisions involving what is best for me asan individual versus what is best for myyour reasons. family as a whole, I will always decide on theside of my family. 9. Discussion9What do the following two statements mean? Do you agree or disagree? Why?A. All human beings are captives of their culture.B. What we think of as mind is really internalized culture. 10. Prediction 10 The title of the reading/lecture isHalls Classification of Cultures.What do you expect it to be about? 11. Listening to the Lecture- Halls Classification of Cultures11As you listen take notes using the notetaking template provided. Link to listening We will be doing this in chunks with tasks ateach part. Note taking template next slide. 12. The speaker will sum up everything he has covered so far in his lecture. As he does so, fill in the blanks. [You may refer to the notes youve taken in previous sections, if necessary.]12IntroductionHigh Context culturesA. DefinitionB. Examples/interpersonal relationshipsC. Examples/attitudes toward timeD. Examples/attitudes toward personal spaceLow Context culturesA. DefinitionB. Examples/interpersonal relationshipsC. Examples/attitudes toward timeD. Examples/attitudes toward personal spaceConclusion/finalthoughts 13. Halls Classification of Culture 13List the 10 nationalities you hear andplace them on the continuum. Share on the white board.Instructor will repeat this section and sss will do the task while listening. Answerson next slide. 14. Halls Continuum 14Low context High context 15. Comprehension-Based on the reading/listening, discuss/ note down your answers to the following questions in pairs.151. In your own words, explain what you think the terms high context and low context culture mean?2. Explain how time is viewed by people in high context and low context cultures?3. Explain how space is viewed by people in high and low context cultures?4. Explain how interpersonal relationships are viewed by people in high and low context cultures? 16. Answers:1. A. High context culture is a culture in which the context of the message, action , or eventcarries a large part of its meaning and or significance.B. A low context culture is one in which the message, event or action is seen as somethingseparate , having meaning unto itself.2. Time-A. High Context- polychronic attitude. People believe that people , things, and events each have their own time.B. Low Context monochronic attitude. Linear attitude about time. Emphasize punctuality. No waste of time,3. Space-A. High- people stand closer when talking, touch a lot, pay more attention to body language.B. Low- personal space is needed , minimal distance around ones body . Tendency to feel violate when personal space is invaded.4. Interpersonal Communication-A. High- less focus on legal contracts and more on social relationships, one depends more on the power and influence of established networks than on the individual characteristics.B. Low- contracts are more important than spoken words and everything is usually written . Legal means are more relied upon that social bonds. People sometimes pass the buck16 17. Defining Vocabulary17The following words we used in the lecture. You willhear an example of each word in context.After listening, circle the letter of the definition that most closely matches what you think the word orexpression means. Pages 11-13 of your course pack. 18. 18 Apply Halls theories to the following: 1. How might culturally different expectationsPost Readingexplain the different reactions andDiscussionperspectives of business executives/teachersfrom Turkey and North American or theUK? a. Would you consider Turkey a high or lowcontext culture ? Why? Explain youranswer. b. Do you think that Halls classificationsystem is valid? Do you see any problemswith it. If so, what are they? 19. 19 In pairs, compare notes. WhatDo NOW information do you have that your classmate doesnt? What information do they have that you dont? Rewrite your notes on a clean A4 sheet of paper using the same format of the note taking template. You should write a summary of the notes in one paragraph as the conclusion. MUST be in YOUR own WORDS!