Text of Deafness and Hearing Loss Patrick Moriarty EDSP 6644
Deafness and Hearing Loss Patrick Moriarty EDSP 6644
Definition Hearing impairment is when an individual loses the ability to hear in either one or both ears. The level of impairment can vary from mild to severe or total loss of hearing.
IDEA The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act defines deafness and hearing impairment as follows: Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, [and] that adversely affects a childs educational performance.... Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a childs education performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness (Heward, 2009).
2 Types There are two types of hearing impairment: one is called conductive hearing impairment which is when the outer or middle ear is damaged. This can be medically treated. The second is sensorineural and this is when there is damage to the inner part of the ear. In most cases, this is irreversible and cannot be healed.
Facts Nearly 300 million people worldwide suffer from some hearing loss in both ears. The majority of those people live in developing or middle class countries. About 38 million Americans report some hearing loss. 2 to 3 out of 1000 children born in the U.S. are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. 9 out of 10 are born to parents with hearing.
Characteristics Difficulty following directions and instructions Difficulty with interpersonal skills Language delay Easily frustrated leading to behavioral difficulties They use American sign language as their first language
Characteristics Cont. Difficulty with speech, reading and writing skills Often struggle with reading and writing because sign language is their first language, so English is a second language for them Socially, deaf culture varies. Big D deaf people usually only socialize with others who are deaf. Small d deaf people try to identify with those who are not deaf. Cochlear implants are accepted by the small d deaf community and shunned by the big D deaf community.
Causes Inherited Premature birth Certain conditions during birth like lack of oxygen to breath Conditions during pregnancy such as rubella, syphilis, and other infections Jaundice and other infectious diseases. Certain drugs can cause deafness Head injuries Excessive loud music Old age, to name a few
Hearing Impaired Childrens Retelling Of Stories Following Presentation In Whole- Class And Individual Contexts This research focused on six students with hearing impairment and their ability to remember a story recited to the class The goal was to determine whether the factors of group size and interaction influence their comprehension when stories are read aloud (simultaneous presentation through signing and speaking) Four presentation situations were used, and a different book was read in each situation After a period of time, the students would then retell the story to the teacher Andrews, S., et al. (1995). Hearing impaired childrens retelling of stories following presentation in whole-class and individual contexts. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED389145.pdf
Findings Results When each story element (setting, presteps, problem, attempts, resolution, ending) was examined individually, the group interactive reading condition appeared to be the most effective overall Specifically, for inclusion of setting, the interactive and non-interactive group were equally effective And for eliciting resolution, the individual non-interactive group was equally effective. Conclusions If a teacher is teaching comprehension to the deaf or hearing impaired, he/she is more likely to be successful if it is presented as a group interactive reading presentation Small group interactions are an effective method of instruction not only for a general education population, but can be successful in self-contained classrooms Andrews, S., et al. (1995). Hearing impaired childrens retelling of stories following presentation in whole-class and individual contexts. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED389145.pdf
Paternal Involvement in the Programs of Hearing-impaired Children: An Exploratory Study This research looks at the nature of a fathers involvement with his hearing impaired child. It focused on how the fathers involvement differed from the involvement of the childs mother There is an emphasis on looking at the technical involvement and the expressive involvement 20 sets of parents participated in the study which was exploratory and descriptive. There was a total of 23 hearing impaired children in the study The parents were asked to answer 10 questions and a 13-item scale The questions and scale were answered separately by each parent McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. (1984). Parental involvement in the programs of hearing-impaired children: An exploratory study. The Family with Handicapped Memebers, 33 (1), 119-125. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584596
Findings Results Conclusions Fathers are typically uninvolved in the life of their hearing impaired child The mother and father differ in their involvement It should not go unnoticed that fathers are involved and concerned with important issues in their childs life It should also be noted that only intact families were studied, no single parent families were used for the study McNeil, M. & Chabassol, D.J. (1984). Parental involvement in the programs of hearing-impaired children: An exploratory study. The Family with Handicapped Memebers, 33 (1), 119-125. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584596 Fathers are primarily providers and thus are less involved in the concerns of their hearing- impaired child Fathers are unable to become involved in the concerns of their hearing-impaired child because of occupational commitments The results also showed that the majority of fathers and mothers believe that the father receives enough information and training about their childs condition from the mother Fathers are defensive about their knowledge and this leads to marital conflict; they do not feel welcomed by professionals; and they are aware of their lack of involvement
Parents Needs Following Identification of Childhood Hearing Loss This study sought to determine the necessary support needed for a child with hearing loss. More specifically, it sought to understand which components of support parents believed to be most important for their child Qualitative research methods were applied Parents from four intervention programs in three cities in the province of Ontario, Canada, were invited to participate Only students who participated in oral communication programs were included in the study Interviews were conducted using a question guide Two primary questions focused on the parents needs and the parents ideas on what components lacked in a support system Fitzpatrick, E., Angus, D., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I., & Coyle, D. (2008). Parents' Needs Following Identification of Childhood Hearing Loss. American Journal of Audiology, 17(1), 38-49. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2008/005)
Findings Results Conclusions Population-based newborn hearing screening presents new opportunities for children with hearing loss and their families. However, there is a realization that the success of newborn screening is largely dependent on the implementation of adequate support programs for children and families (Hyde, 2005; White, 2003; Yoshinaga-Itano, 2004) (Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008) Most parents were satisfied with the services and professionalism of the program Many parents wanted to have some notion of the prognosis for their child with a specific hearing loss(Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008) Parents want counseling on information that goes beyond the clinic providers No specific model of services was ideal for all families More specific needs of the parents was discovered in this research Fitzpatrick, E., Angus, D., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I., & Coyle, D. (2008). Parents' Needs Following Identification of Childhood Hearing Loss. American Journal of Audiology, 17(1), 38-49. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2008/005) The study was conducted shortly after a new universal screening program was implemented in Canada. 17 interviews took place with a total of 21 adults participating The profound effect of a childhood hearing loss on the family was captured in the experiences and decisions made by parents in the early stages (Fitzpatrick, et al., 2008) Newborn hearing screening services are essential for all children after they are born Access to audiology and therapy services are imperative during the initial identification stage, but parents were pleased with the services offered after the difficult period Parents were pleased with language therapy All parents were offered social support services, but the quality varied
Recommendations Take an interest in the student/s. -Learn what works best for each individual -Understand what they need to be successful -Familiarize yourself with their IEP Communication and Language -Talk with the special ed. Teacher -Parents are usually a great resource (McNeil & Chabassol, 1984) -Utilize interpreters when you can -Learn sign language, or a