Chapter 6: Ancient China Schools of Thought in Ancient China.

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  • Chapter 6: Ancient China Schools of Thought in Ancient China
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  • Who was Confucius? 551-479 BC Known as the First Teacher Desire was to be political adviser Found little favor from those in politics Wanted to use his knowledge of politics to change China Spent his life travelling China to challenge political and moral decay of society Chinese society was full of violence His message provided guidelines to a new society
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  • Confucianism Lacked a spiritual message. Completely based off of politics and morals Spiritual questions were useless Assume there is order and purpose in universe Follow it to achieve harmony and success Two elements of Dao: Duty and Humanity Duty: be subordinate to own interest for greater good 5 Relationships to be governed by 1. Parent-Child (Parents be loving. Child be reverent) 2. Husband-Wife (Husband fulfill duties. Wife be obedient) 3. Older Sibling-Younger Sibling (Older be kind. Younger be respectful) 4. Older Friend-Younger Friend (Older be considerate. Younger be deferential 5. Ruler-Subject (Ruler be benevolent. Subject be Loyal)
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  • Confucianism Two elements of Dao: Duty and Humanity Humanity Compassion and empathy for others What you do not wish done to yourself, do not do to others Preached that we are all brothers and should be treated as such Forward thinking ideas: Government should be run by anyone with superior talent. Not just the rich Rule by merit, not by birth Became a guiding principle for the future Stressed a return to the Golden Age of China Happens during Zhou Dynasty Saw it as an age of perfection
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  • Daoism Dao: The Way Ideas of Laozi (The Old Master) No one knows if Laozi existed Tao Te Ching: The Way of Dao Maps out the philosophy Does not focus on meaning of universe Proper forms of human behavior The best way to act in harmony with the universe is not to disrupt the natural order
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  • Legalism Referred to as the School of Law Proposed that human beings were evil by nature Wanted a system of impersonal laws Needed a strong ruler to maintain order in society Necessity for strict rules and harsh punishments for the commoners This would get them to be subordinate People not capable of being good Ruler did not need to show compassion
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  • Chapter 6: Ancient China The Qin Unify China
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  • The Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) Qin Shihuangdi Became ruler of the Qin at age 13 in 246BC Over next 25 years, defeated all rivals to establish his dynasty in China Influence of Qin Shihuangdi Created single monetary system Built road system throughout the empire Divided Aristocratic lands and gave them to the peasants Established taxes on aristocrats as well Foreign Affairs Armies moved to the South and expanded empire into present day Vietnam
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  • The Emperors Army The Terra Cotta Army A recreation of Qin Shihuangdis imperial guard 6,000 soliders 7,000 bronze weapons 10 different shapes of heads used and everything finished by hand Gave them a more lifelike form and individuality Estimated that it cost one-third of the national income at the time. Thought to have been used to accompany the emperor into the afterlife
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  • Great Wall of China What was the purpose of the Great Wall? Protection from: Xiongnu (horse back riding nomadic people from south of Gobi) Moved with the seasons for survival Challenged Chinese communities in North They built walls to protect themselves from warriors Qin Shihuangdi used the pre-existing walls and fortified them Known then as the Wall of Ten Thousand Li The Great Wall of today was built in the last 700 years. Original wall can still be found in small pieces Said to have the bodies of the workers who died within it
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  • Politics of Qin Dynasty Followed the beliefs of Legalism 3 parts of the government: 1. Civil Division 2. Military Division 3. Censorate: Made sure the government was functioning properly Under Central government was provinces and counties Leaders of the provinces and counties were appointed and not based on birth Anyone found guilty of wrongdoing was executed Politics angered many and when Qin died in 210, his dynasty was overthrown in 206 BC
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  • Chapter 6: Ancient China The Han Dynasty
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  • Political Structure of Han Dynasty Confucianism in political beliefs They did not believe in the cruel and unusual punishments of Qin Dynasty Things kept over from Qin Dynasty The 3 part system of the central government (military, civil, and censorate) The provinces and counties were kept Appointments based on merit and not birth Established the civil service system A system to train and find future leaders of the civilization Studied the teachings of Confucius to ensure a line of rulers that society ran properly Population ranged from 20-60 million people
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  • Political Structure of Han Dynasty Expansion of Empire Han Wudi Martial Emperor of Han Took over land along South China Sea Expanded West into Central Asia Expelled the nomadic tribes and left China with 150 years of peace
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  • Society in Han Empire Family Basic economic unit Basic educational unit Basic morality unit Was emphasized after its attempted destruction in Qin Dynasty Peasants suffered greatly after tax increases caused many to lose land and become tenant farmers Economy Shipyards, weapons manufacturing, and operating granaries Foreign trade only with local nations only Some trade with nations via Silk Road and southern ports
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  • Technology and Culture in Han Dynasty Iron-Casting Led to invention of steel Powered by water mills Paper Over next 900 years, spreads to India and rest of Asia Eventually shipped to rest of world Shipping Invention of rudder as well as fore-and-aft rigging Allowed ships to sail into wind