1. ANCIENT ROME AND ANCIENT CHINA: A COMPARISON By: Rebecca Massingill
2. Ancient Rome Ancient China
3. METHODS OF EXPANSION Ancient Rome Ancient China The expansion of China began in the 11th centry BC when the Zhou dynasty defeated the Shang dynasty. In the Yangtze valley, the southern state of Chu expanded rapidly, defeating 50 small states. (Edwards) Ancient Rome was a warlike state that predominately used its legions to annex or capture unwilling nations. Those who were willing to join Rome could be peacefully incorporated through the use of the Roman Senate, and these new territories could eventually gain their own seats in the senate. (Tuori)
4. RELIGION Rome China Taoism is considered to be the primary religion of the Han Dynasty. Tao means, The path . This religion is a set of principles regarding meditation, the body, diet uses of herbs, breathing and exercise. Other famous belief systems that arose from ancient China include Confucianism and Buddhism. In the early days of the Roman Empire, it was largely a polytheistic culture. They worshipped many gods of various powers, including gods of war, agriculture, and beauty. During the first and second centuries, Christianity became very prominent and eventually spread through the entire Roman Empire.
5. GOVERNMENT Rome Rome had a democratic government. Citizens were able to elect their own officials (also called consuls) by gathering at an assembly every year. Other government officials were tax collectors, judges and magistrates. (Edwards 11) China Ancient China had governments that were monarchies ruled by patriarchs. The first emperor was Qin Shi Huang. He insisted on having any evidence from earlier dynasties destroyed and had scholars buried alive. (Zhou, Haiwen, Southern Economic Journal) (Edwards 7)
6. AGRICULTURE Rome Roman agriculture consisted of vineyards, irrigated gardens, willow plantations, grain land, and other crops. The amount of land one owned would determine their importance. One of Romes most famous landmarks was the aqueduct, which was able to move large quantities of water long distances. China Ancient China has developed numerous, efficient methods for farming. Around 722-81 BC, they created cast iron tools, seed drill, and the use of large-scale harnessing of rivers. The dietary staples of ancient China included rice, fish, and wheat. (Zhou, Haiwen, Southern Economic Journal)
7. LANGUAGE Rome: The primary language of the Roman Empire was Latin. Many modern languages have roots in Latin. (Edwards 12) China: China has many languages but Mandarin is the official spoken language. Cantonese is also widely used. (Crease)
8. WAR CULTURE Rome In ancient Rome, martial skills were highly admired and war was a source of prestige for the elite and well connected. Soldiers went through a rigorous training regimen similar to modern boot camp, and new recruits were always on the front lines of a battle. Roman legions were both legendary and feared. (Edwards 13) China Throughout the lifetime of ancient China, its people were plagued with constant warfare. Over the course of centuries, various influential groups arose who sought to turn warfare into an art. Many of the worlds most admired and ancient martial arts can trace their roots to ancient China. This mentality can best be seen in the book The Art of War by Sun Tzu. (Edwards 3)
9. BUILDING TECHNIQUES Rome Built primarily with concrete Imitated Greek Models Utilization of the arch Monuments proclaim military achievements Use of columns (Calliope) (Fiero 73) China Built primarily with wood Proficient in bronze-casting and ceramics Produced ethereal works in gold, jade, silk, and lacquered wood. (Fiero 87)
10. ROMES MOST FAMOUS LANDMARKS The Colosseum The Pantheon The Arch of Titus It seated fifty thousand people and covered over 6 acres. This amphitheater was used for entertainment such as gladiatorial contests, chariot races, mock sea battles, and an array of other relentlessly, bloody sports. (Fiero 75) This is the worlds largest unreinforced concrete dome and is one of the best- preserved of all ancient Rome buildings. It is classified as a temple but its original purpose remains unknown. (Fiero 76) Augustus was the first to use commemorative arches to celebrate military triumphs. This arch commemorates the last days of the Jewish Wars. (Fiero 81)
11. CHINAS MOST FAMOUS LANDMARKS The Terracotta army was buried with the emperor Qin Shi Huang in order to protect him. The ceramic warriors had faces that were individually carved and painted and no two were alike. (Fiero 85) In 1977, these bells were unintentionally discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi. It is estimated that the tomb was made around 433 BC. The set of bells consist of 64, two-toned bells that require a total of five people to be played. (Crease)(Fiero 88) This wall is approximately 1500 miles long. The most famous portion of the wall was built by Qin Shi Huang from 220-206 BC. The wall has been used for border control, regulation of trade and control of immigration. (Fiero 84) The Terracotta Army Bronze bells of Marquis Yi The Great Wall of China
12. MODERN INFLUENCES: ROME Developed the division between public law and private law. Writers such as Shakespeare and Dante have been influenced by ancient Romes literature. The Romans played a significant role in spreading Christianity.
13. MODERN INFLUENCES: CHINA The Chinese created porcelain between 17th-11th century BC. In the 9th century AD, the Chinese invented paper money. The concept of inoculation was introduced around 1017.
14. WORKS CITED Silk Ties: The Links Between Ancient Rome & China. History Today. http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=20b355ed-bd21-4c14-8b22- 4e771767c145%40sessionmgr112&vid=0&hid=127&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c 2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=fth&AN=28105375 Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shinyang. UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/439 Architecture Roman-Style. Calliope. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=24&sid=38fbd0a6-8fce-438b-8a1d- 10c332dd6650%40sessionmgr110&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcG U9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=fth&AN=18825986
15. WORKS CITED (CONTINUED) Internal Rebellions and External Threats: A Model of Government Organizational Forms in Ancient China. Zhou, Haiwen, Southern Economic Journal, 00384038, Apr2012, Vol. 78, Issue 4 http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=f092c04c-b2a1-4ae7-89d7- 825a6a19ed43%40sessionmgr111&vid=0&hid=104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU 9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=75151080 Alberico Gentili and the Criticism of Expansion in the Roman Empire. The Invaders Remorse Kaius Tuori http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c9f5b8ea-a3b1-491b-a555- 789d0bc19208%40sessionmgr113&vid=1&hid=104
16. WORKS CITED (CONTINUED) Politics of precision in ancient China Crease, Robert P., Physics Today, 00319228, Mar2011, Vol. 64, Issue http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=58b5eea9-8109-4920-b945- 238a34c7e2fe%40sessionmgr115&vid=0&hid=104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l 0ZQ%3d%3d#db=aqh&AN=59449650 FEDERALISM AND THE BALANCE OF POWER: CHINAS HAN AND TANG DYNASTIES AND THE ROMAN EMPIRE Ronald A. Edwards http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=56b7d803-b85c-4ac1-9454- f09fe5ee87eb%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=104