Ancient India vs. Ancient China

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Ancient India vs. Ancient China. India Geography North China South Asian Plain of Indus Huang He (Yellow River). Periodic flooding=renewal of fertile soil Humid subtropical climate=difficulty storing food Himalaya Mts.=shielded from winter cold and invasions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Ancient India vs. Ancient China</p></li><li><p> India Geography North ChinaSouth Asian Plain of Indus Huang He (Yellow River)Periodic flooding=renewal of fertile soilHumid subtropical climate=difficulty storing foodHimalaya Mts.=shielded from winter cold and invasionsMonsoons and snowmelt=abundant water supply and maritime trade (later)Passes in northwest=contact with Middle East</p><p>Floods carry loess=renewal of soil fertilityMuch mountainous and semidesert land=settlement only along riversViolent flooding=dike building for controlMountain, desert, and jungle barriers=cultural isolation=unique/homogeneous cultureClimate split between arid, cool north and wet, warm south</p></li><li><p>India Political Patterns ChinaCentralized govt evident in prominence of logically planned cities with public buildings and services</p><p>Small feudal kingdoms later unified by Zhou DynastyExpansion from ShangZhouQinHighly centralized autocracy and unification later under the Qin DynastyDynastic Cycle and idea of Mandate of Heaven</p></li><li><p>Mandate of Heaven</p></li><li><p>India Social/Economic ChinaTrade with Mesopotamia, South India, and AfghanistanUncertainty about how society was organized; small republics, rule by priests, or early form of caste system(Minimal evidence=little definite knowledge)Undecipherable writingElaborately planned cities, standardized weights and measures, architectural designUnlike other civilizations, it produced no palaces, temples, elaborate graves, kings, or warrior classKing, aristocratic ruling class, and bureaucracy made up of warrior familiesPeasant farmers and slavesArtisan/craft workersMerchantsPatriarchal Impressive cultural continuity into modern times</p></li><li><p> India Religious ChinaImportance of fertility=worship of mother goddessClay tablet images of gods=prototypes of Hindu deities?Clay animal figures=great respect for livestock such as cows?King worshipped as mediator between people and gods=ruler was son of heavenEarly written language with oracle bones as early documentsEarly worship of dead royalty set pattern for ancestor venerationConfucianism=secular belief in ethical conduct and social harmonyTaoism=philosophy focusing on living in harmony with laws of nature</p></li><li><p>Interactions/technologyDecline of Indus valley due to change in geographic patterns shifted people eastAryans migrate from Central Asia into northwest India (modern day Pakistan) bringing language and cultural traditions including the Vedas, caste system, and beliefs that would become HinduismChina is isolated due to geography=lack of outside contact=self-sufficiency, unique culture, ethnocentrism (middle kingdom)Gradually populations move to warmer, wetter climates that can sustain bigger populations on riceCrossbow, horses and the chariot from Central Asia will become essential to military victoriesBronze used in weapons and religious vessels</p></li></ul>