Chapter 13- The Federal Bureaucracy (1). Define what a bureaucracy is, and summarize its key characteristics and its nature. (1). Define what a bureaucracy.

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Chapter 13- The Federal Bureaucracy (1). Define what a bureaucracy is, and summarize its key characteristics and its nature. (1). Define what a bureaucracy is, and summarize its key characteristics and its nature. (2). Examine the structure, organization, roles and tasks of the Federal Bureaucracy. (2). Examine the structure, organization, roles and tasks of the Federal Bureaucracy. (3). Examine the Presidents Cabinet and discuss their key departmental responsibilities. (3). Examine the Presidents Cabinet and discuss their key departmental responsibilities. (4). Contrast the diverse functions of the Executive Departments, Independent (4). Contrast the diverse functions of the Executive Departments, Independent Regulatory Commissions, Government Corporations, and Independent Agencies. (5). Contrast the key tasks of rule administration, rule making, and rule adjudication. (5). Contrast the key tasks of rule administration, rule making, and rule adjudication. (6). Examine the development & growth of the Bureaucracys power and responsibilities. (6). Examine the development & growth of the Bureaucracys power and responsibilities. (7). Outline how the Federal Personnel System has evolved and changed, and discuss the (7). Outline how the Federal Personnel System has evolved and changed, and discuss the spoils system, patronage and the Civil Service System and its attempted reforms. spoils system, patronage and the Civil Service System and its attempted reforms. (8). Examine the Federal Bureaucracy's political character, goals, and resources. (8). Examine the Federal Bureaucracy's political character, goals, and resources. (9). Outline the ways that Congress, the President, Interest Groups, and other agencies (9). Outline the ways that Congress, the President, Interest Groups, and other agencies place constraints on the Federal Bureaucracy. place constraints on the Federal Bureaucracy. (10). Explain the "iron triangle" theory and contrast it with the rise of issue networks. (10). Explain the "iron triangle" theory and contrast it with the rise of issue networks. (11). Assess the recent efforts to reform or "reinvent" the Federal Bureaucracy. (11). Assess the recent efforts to reform or "reinvent" the Federal Bureaucracy. Slide 2 Webers Five Characteristics of Bureaucracy Specialization Record-keeping Formality Professionalization Hierarchy What is a Bureaucracy? Gov. agencies that implement Government policies Slide 3 Structure & Tasks of Federal Bureaucracy (The Executive Branch) Homeland Security Executive Departments (The Cabinet) Slide 4 Types of Federal Agencies Executive Departments Executive Departments Cabinet appointed by the president Confirmed by Senate with its advice & consent Independent Regulatory Commissions Independent Regulatory Commissions Small commissions w/greater independence Fix terms can only be fired for cause Government Corporations Government Corporations Government companies that serve Public for fee Suppose to be self supporting (example?) Finance, energy, insurance Independent Agencies Independent Agencies Not part of Executive Department w/sub-cabinet rank* NASA, EPA, *(Exception: CIA) All heads serve at Pleasure of President Slide 5 Executive Departments State Defense TreasuryJustice Interior AgricultureLabor Homeland Security What kind of Departments or Agencies are these? Commerce Health & Human Svs Energy Housing & Urban Dev. Transportation Veterans Affairs Education Slide 6 EPAFEMAGSA NASA Peace Corps SBA CIA* National Archives & Records Independent Agencies What kind of Federal Agencies are these? *Exception: Cabinet Rank (Since Clinton Administration) Slide 7 FCC Federal Reserve SEC FEC OSHA EEOC Nuclear Regulatory Commission Consumer Product Safety Independent Regulatory Commissions Federal Trade Commission What kind of Federal Agencies are these? Slide 8 FDIC Export- Import Bank TVA AMTRAK Corp. for National & Community Service Government Corporations Inter- America Foundation Postal Service What kind of Federal Agencies are these? Slide 9 Federal Departments & Agencies (summary) Slide 10 The Tasks of the Federal Bureaucracy Bureaucracies Perform Three Functions: Bureaucracies Perform Three Functions: 1. Rule Administration 1. Rule Administration Administer the rules of public policy Core bureaucratic function 2. Rule Making* 2. Rule Making* Put general principles into Federal Regulations Develop new rules as required 3. Rule Adjudication 3. Rule Adjudication Determine if & when the rules have been followed or broken Slide 11 Federal Government Rule Making (1940-2004) Slide 12 Development of Federal Bureaucracy Constitutional Foundations Role of Congress & the President Role of Congress & the President Shared powers to devise & operate Bureaucracy Presidents power to appoint & ensure laws executed Federal Bureaucracy => Constitutional hybrid Federal Bureaucracy => Constitutional hybrid Created by Congress Directed by the President Accountable to both Has the Federal Bureaucracy grown over the years? Has the Federal Bureaucracy grown over the years? Answer: Yes and No* Slide 13 Civilian Federal Employees 1820-2003 Slide 14 Federal Government Growth (1820-2003): Per Capita Spending vs. People Employed Slide 15 Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy Chart (Figure 13-4)* illustrated (from 1890): Chart (Figure 13-4)* illustrated (from 1890): Steady Federal growth to 1945 highpoint (3.8M) Steep growth began between 1931=> 1945 (why?) Per capita growth & spending (Figure 13-5)*shows: Per capita growth & spending (Figure 13-5)*shows: As US population grew (now at about 300 Million) => Federal spending per person grew significantly, while Federal Bureaucrats employed declined Bottom Line: Bottom Line: Federal Bureaucracy now spending & doing more per person (per capita) w/less federal employees to do it Slide 16 Expanding Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy Four major categories of Federal functions: Four major categories of Federal functions: National Maintenance Clientele Services Regulation of Private Sector Income Redistribution Lets look at these major Federal functions in greater detail. Slide 17 National Maintenance Early Federal Government Functions & Responsibilities primarily limited to: Early Federal Government Functions & Responsibilities primarily limited to: Collect tax revenue Defend the Nation Conduct foreign relations Enforce Federal laws Promote internal communications Which Government Departments & Agencies administered these functions?* Which Government Departments & Agencies administered these functions?* Slide 18 Treasury Department War Department State Department Attorney General Post Office Early Federal Departments & Government Responsibilities Slide 19 Clientele Services (mid-19th century) Serve special needs of influential Interest Groups Serve special needs of influential Interest Groups Agencies created to serve clients special interest Agencies created to serve clients special interest Department of Agriculture Bureau of Labor Bureau of Labor => later: Dept of Commerce and Labor Slide 20 Client Service Needs of 20 th Century 1930s=> Great Depression=> FDRs New Deal: 1930s=> Great Depression=> FDRs New Deal: Federal Activism and Bureaucracy expands: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1960s=> War on Poverty=> LBJs Great Society: Department of Housing and Urban Development Slide 21 Department of Transportation Department of Energy Department of Education Department of Veterans Affairs More Government Bureaucracy Created during the 20 th Century All formed to address other clients needs All formed to address other clients needs Latest edition to Federal Bureaucracy?* Slide 22 Department of Homeland Security Slide 23 Regulation of Private Sector Regulation of Private Sector Expanding Federal Responsibilities More: Responsibility or regulating American economy Responsibility or regulating American economy Federal Agencies established: Federal Agencies established: ICC, Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission 1960s=> Regulate Society (Social Regulation) 1960s=> Regulate Society (Social Regulation) Examples: EPA, OSHA Social Regulation entails what kind of Federal function?* Social Regulation entails what kind of Federal function?* Slide 24 Income Redistribution Agencies formed to re-distribute economic benefits Agencies formed to re-distribute economic benefits Shift $$$ either directly or indirectly Direct payments made to poor individuals: Social Security (elderly) & AFDC (minors) Social Security (elderly) & AFDC (minors) Some programs even transfer $$$ to wealthy: Some programs even transfer $$$ to wealthy: Dept of Agriculture programs (wealthy farmers) Social Security payments to wealthy retirees Not always a one way street (i.e. from rich to poor) Not always a one way street (i.e. from rich to poor) Slide 25 Political appointees were generally recruited from the educated elite class. Government by Gentleman Federal Bureaucracys Personnel System A History of Change (A Calling or Duty in service to the Nation) Slide 26 Appointees of the President replace the previous Presidents appointees. Government jobs = spoils of war The Spoils System Changes in Fed Bureaucracys Personnel System (2) Spoils System first associated with whose Administration? Spoils System is also known as?* Slide 27 The practice of rewarding partisan supporters with government jobs. (AKA: spoils system) Patronage Strong support for Patronage or Spoils System lasted until late 1800s when what happened? Congressional reaction? Pendleton Act of 1883 (from 10% - 80+%) => Signaled beginning of what system based on what? Slide 28 Competence for job stressed Political affiliation & political loyalty not a requirement for getting hired What you know is more important than who you know Civil Service & Merit Civil Servants ranked and paid IAW General Schedule Classification System or GS rankings Slide 29 President Carter initiated major reforms Reorganized agencies that oversee civil service in order to eliminate previous conflicts of interests: Office of Personnel Management Merit System Protection Board Also created the Senior Executive Service (SES) Allows high level civil servants to move into other vacant policy making positions. Remains a work in progress (Homeland Security) Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 Slide 30 Politics of the Federal Bureaucracy Theory versus Reality Theory: political neutrality & competence Theory: political neutrality & competence (Based on 19 th century social theory of Max Weber) Bureaucracy mechanically implement laws & policies Always act in Publics best interest Above theory is the traditional (mythological) view of how the Government Bureaucracy works as illustrated in the following model* Above theory is the traditional (mythological) view of how the Government Bureaucracy works as illustrated in the following model* Slide 31 Traditional View of Government Bureaucracy PresidentCongress Formulate Policy Bureaucracy Implements the Policy Role of Bureaucracy? Slide 32 Political Character of the Federal Bureaucracy- The Reality: Reality: Inherently political institutions Reality: Inherently political institutions Translate principles & goals=> concrete programs Take board policies & laws => detailed regulations Range of Discretion => and conflicting guidance President vs. Congress intentions often compete Result: Bureaucracy serves two masters Result: Bureaucracy serves two masters Can Play one off the other (depending on own agenda) Exercises discretion => freedom to shape own rules Usually made consistent with their own best interests With Belief: whats good for them is good for the USA Slide 33 Mission Goals Mission Goals Survival Goals Survival Goals The policy objectives that justify the creation and existence of an agency The desire bureaucrats have to see the agency they work for grow and prosper Two Goals: Goals of the Federal Bureaucracy Slide 34 Potential Threats to those Goals Potential threats=> Potential threats=> Conflict & competition with other political actors: Congress & The President (EOP) Other Federal Agencies & Interests Groups State & local governments Lifeblood of bureaucracy? Lifeblood of bureaucracy? Power ( A zero/sum game in Washington arena) Constant competition for power, influence, & growth What are the Political Resources available to the Federal Bureaucracy to counter these threats? What are the Political Resources available to the Federal Bureaucracy to counter these threats? Slide 35 Administrative Discretion Political power through rule making procedures. The use of rules to reflect an agencys view of the public good. Power how to shape & administer policy (EPA=> strict or lax enforcement of regulations) Slide 36 Clientele are the recipients of the services a government agency's programs provide. Clientele Support Example: DOD versus DOS=> whos most likely to win? Domestic vs. foreign clients & the captive agency The power an agency exercises depends heavily on the power of its clientele. Slide 37 Expertise is specialized knowledge acquired through work experience or training and education. Agency Expertise Agencies gain power from the expertise their employees develop. Critical factors affecting value of expertise: Extent that agency is only one with the expertise Size of the knowledge gap with other experts Example: NASA versus DOS & foreign policy Slide 38 Assessment: Effect of differences in Agency Power Mission & survival goals affected by all three Mission & survival goals affected by all three Strong clients, great expertise, more knowledge = Strong clients, great expertise, more knowledge = More say & therefore more power = Expanded mission & bigger budget ($$) More likely to survive at other agencies expense All affect status & pecking order in Washington All affect status & pecking order in Washington DOD more powerful than DOS Both more powerful than DOT & DOE And so on down the Cabinet pecking order Slide 39 Political Constraints On Federal Bureaucracy Congress The President Interest Groups The Courts Other Agencies Examine in greater detail* Slide 40 Political Constraints on the Federal Bureaucracy: The Congress Congress=> Article I: enumerated powers: Congress=> Article I: enumerated powers: Create => implies: modify or abolish Determine Bureaucracys structure & responsibility Appropriate funds to accomplish responsibilities Congress implied powers: Congress implied powers: Oversight (GAO & CRS) Committee & Sub-committees role Committee & Sub-committees role Budget authorization & appropriation for programs Interest Group's influence on Congress Interest Group's influence on Congress Can be significant=> motivating Congress to act Slide 41 Political Constraints on the Federal Bureaucracy: The President President => IAW interpretation of Article II: President => IAW interpretation of Article II:...

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